First Somali resistance group.Leaders: Dr. Hassan Ali Mireh, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, General Mohamed Abshir Musa, Mohammed Abshir Waldo (General Secretary)
Area of Operations: 1988: Mudug region in central Somalia and Nugaal and Bari regions in southern Somalia; 1991: northeast Somalia (Puntland)
Tribal Affiliation: Majerteen and Darood clans
Founded: 1978 by several army officers, it was the first of several opposition groups dedicated to ousting the authoritarian regime of Mohamed Siad Barre.
Took part in a 1982 Ethiopian border offensive against Somalia.
The SSDF tried to ally with the SNM in 1983, but they failed to agree to a common strategy.
The SNF was a political revolutionary movement and armed militia in Somalia. Initially made up of loyalists to former President of Somalia Siad Barre and the remnants of the Somali National Army forces after his ouster from office, the SNF's intent and goal was to recapture Mogadishu and reinstate Barre's regime. Later, under General Omar Hagi Masallah, the SNF united the Marehan with the other Darod clans led by General Mohammed Said Hersi "Morgan", and then attempted to conquer the region around Kismayo to form the autonomous district of Jubaland.Leaders: General Siad Barre, Mohammed Said Samatar "Gacaliye", Ahmed Sheikh Ali Ahmed "Burale", Dr. Ali Nur, Gen Omar Hagi Massale, General Mohammed Hashi Gaani, Col Barre Hiiraale, Col. Abdirizak Issak Bihi.
Area of Operations: Southern and Central Somalia; occasional forays to outskirts of Mogadishu and neighboring borders.
Tribal Affiliation: Marehan (Mareehaan)
Founded: March 1991
Leaders: Ahmad Mahammad Culaid, Ahmad Ismaaiil Abdi, Abdulqaadir Kosar Abdi, Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo, Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur
Area of Operations: Northern Somalia (Somaliland)
Tribal Affiliation: Isaaq
Isaaq tribe members had founded the movement in 1981 as emigres to London with the express purpose of overthrowing the Barre regime. They eventually moved to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and gained the support of the Ethiopian government.
On January 2, 1982 operating near Berbera, the group attacked Mandera Prison to free political prisoners while simultaneously raiding Cadaadle armory.
Between 1985 and 1987, the SNM conducted many attacks on government facilities and troops based out of camps in Ethiopia.
By 1988, the SNM moved out of their camps in Ethiopia and began operating in northern Somalia, the area now known as Somaliland. They even temporarily occupied the provincial capitals of Burao and Hargeysa.
They captured government Toyota Land Cruisers turned them into technicals by mounting 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm machineguns, 106 mm recoilless rifles, and BM-21 rocket launchers. They also operated various antiaircraft guns, such as the ZU-23-2.
By 1991, they had taken control of Hargeysa, Berbera, Burao, and Erigavo. On May 18, 1991, they declared the Republic of Somaliland.Leaders: Colonel Bashir Bililiqo, Colonel Ahmed Omar Jess, General Aden Abdullahi Nur ('Gabyow'), General Mohammed Said Hersi "Morgan"
Area of Operations: southern Somalia
Tribal Affiliation: Ogaden (SPM 'Ogadeni') and non-Ogaden (known as SPM 'Harti')
Begun by a group of disaffected Ogadeni officers.
A key accomplishment was the seizure of Balli-Dogle air base in the days prior to Barre's flight from Mogadishu.Leaders: Dr. Omar M. Hassan, Hussein Ahmed Mohamed, Abdi Hilowle Hassan, Hassan Mohamud Moheddin, Hassan Omar Mohamed (Founders, 1989); Dr. Ismael Jimaale (Mogadishu section founder, 1989); General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Habar Gidir clan), Ali Mahdi Mohamed (Abgaal clan), Mohamed Qanyare Afrah (November 1991)
Area of Operations: central Somalia
Tribal Affiliation: Hawiye (Murasade and Abgal clans)
Founded: February 1, 1989 in Rome
On January 26, 1991, the USC stormed the Presidential palace in Mogadishu, taking control of the capital and forcing Siad Barre into exile.
In November 1991, factionalism between Gen. Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mahammad caused a split in the USC. Mohamed Qanyare Afrah was chosen to be the Chairman of the smaller, breakaway "USC Madhi" faction. This leadership position was not recognized by Gen. Aidid.Leaders:Muse Mayo (Pro-Mahdi faction)
Area of Operations: Baidoa
Tribal Affiliation: Rahanwayn
Founded: 1991 in Dubai and Rome
Leaders: Hassan Dahir Aweys, Hassan Abdullah Hersi al-Turki
Area of Operations: Southwest (Ras Kamboni, Luuq)
Religious Affiliations:Sunni Islam
Founded: Late 1980s.
Founded 1991, represents Somali indigenous groups, non-violence organization
Leaders: Mohammed Husen, Ex-parliamentary Somali Transitional Federal Government; TFG, died 2010 in Mogadisho,
and General Mohammed Mohammud Hayd Ex-cabinet of President Dr.Abdiqasiman,and parliamentary
an advocate of Somali indigenous clans.
Tribal Affiliation: Gabooye: Muse clan and madhiban indigenous Somali clans.
The Isaaq-dominated northern Somaliland region of Somalia declared its independence in 1991, but has not been recognized by any country or international organization as a sovereign nation.Leaders: 1992-1996: Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Mohamed Nur Aliyou; 1996-2001: Hussein Mohamed Farah Aidid
Area of Operations:Mogadishu
Tribal affiliation:Habar Gidir
Founded: June 1992 - 2004
Its constituents included Mohamed Aidid's breakaway United Somali Congress faction, the Somali Patriotic Movement, Southern Somali National Movement, and other southern factions. His son, Hussein Aidid, assumed leadership upon his death. The SNA became the core of the SRRC in 2001.Leaders: General Siad Barre, General, Mohammed Said Samatar ('Gacaliye'), General Omar Hagi Masallah,Dr. Ali Nur Mukhtar, Ahmed Sheikh Ali " Buraale ". Col. Abdirizak Isak Bihi, Mohamud Sayid.
Area of Operations: Gedo, Middle and Upper Jubba regions; occasional forays to outskirts of Mogadishu
Tribal Affiliation: Marehan (Mareehaan)
Founded: March 1991
Loyalists to Siad Barre, the remnants of his army forces founded the SNF militia after his ouster from office.
Their intent and goal was to recapture Mogadishu and reinstate the regime of Siad Barre, and to establish regional state in Gedo, Middle and Lower Jubba.Leaders: Mohamed Farah Abdullahi, Mohamed Rashiid Sheekh, Zak Fergason, and Jamac Rabile(SDA)
Area of Operations: Awdal, Somalia
Tribal Affiliation: Gadabursi
Pro-Barre faction. Fought against other liberation movements during Barre's reign. Reconciled in 1991 with the SNM to form the Republic of Somaliland. Thereafter, sought the independence of Somaliland from the rest of Somalia.Leaders: Abdurahman Dualeh Al;
Area of Operations: Zeila, Somalia
Tribal Affiliation: Issa
Founded: prior to 1991 as a small liberation movement. "New" USF founded Summer 1991
The original USF joined with the SNM in the creation of the Republic of Somaliland.
The Issa clan is a Somali clan that spreads across northwest Somaliland and the nation of Djibouti. The "new" USF especially sought to represent the interests of the Djibouti-based Iise.
(also called Somali Asal Muki Organization)Leaders: Mohamed Ramadan Arbow
Area of Operations: ???
Tribal Affiliation: Bantu
Some of the tribes living the jubba and shabelle river banks Leaders: [Ali Ismael Abdi] and [A/lahi Azari]
Area of Operations: Galgadud, Mudug, Burtinle-Nugaal
Tribal Affiliation: [Lelkase] and [Awrtable] [Darood] sub-clans
Museum : Museum is available at Mudug
Leaders: Dr. Mohamed Ragis Mohamed
Area of Operations:
Tribal Affiliation: Reer Hamar; an Arabic, not ethnic Somali clan
A political party that was active in the 1960s but was forced into dissolution during the Barre regime. It revived after his downfall.Leaders: Mohamed Abdi Hashi
Area of Operations: Erigavo and Las Anod, Somaliland
Tribal Affiliation: Dhulbahante, Warsangeli
Founded: 1957 - 1969 (original group); 1991
The "new" USP had no affiliation to the original group founded in the 1950s. The new group that bore their name were generally pro-Siad, but key participants in the Reconciliation Conference of the Elders of the Republic of Somaliland at Borama in early 1993.
The 1993 Informal Preparatory Meeting on National Reconciliation and the Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia saw the presence of no less than 15 separate factions, including the offshoot SNA branches of USC and SPM. It was a plethora of acronyms: SAMO, SDA, SDM, SNA, SNDU, SNF, SNU, SPM, SPM-(SNA), SSDF, SSNM-(SNA), USC-(SNA), USC, USF, USP. Aidid's four SNA-aligned factions comprised a powerful bloc.
The progressive tone of the proceedings was undercut by the actual lack of progress in the regions and on the streets of Mogadishu. In time, new factions emerged as the Somali Civil War entered a new phase: disintegration into independent and autonomous states.