The Erigavo settlement is several centuries old. It lies approximately 180 km from Badhan the third biggest city in the region to the east, The general area is noted for its numerous historical tombs, where various Somali clan patriarchs are buried. As of 2013, Erigavo is the administrative capital of the northern Sanaag region. It is also the center of the Erigavo District.
It's also where Musse Ismaeel sub-clan of Habar Yoonis is buried and use to be an Isaaq city trade route during the middle ages.
10 km (6 m) to the north of the town are the remains of a juniper forest, running along the edge of the escarpment overlooking the Gulf of Aden. The escarpment is approximately 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level, where the road from Erigavo drops down to the coast. 2 km (1.2 mi) to the west, it rises to the highest point in Somaliland, Shimbiris. A popular local attraction, the summit sits at an elevation of about 2670 m above sea level. A road also leads up from Erigavo to Mountain Daallo. At the mountain's peak, the sea can be observed in addition to the ancient town of Hiis situated nearby.
Erigavo is also home to animal and plant species. Wildlife endemic to the area include the black-backed jackal, Dorcas gazelle, hamadryas baboon, Suidae, common dwarf mongoose, Abdim's stork, long-crested eagle and hartebeest.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Erigavo features a mild version of the semi-arid climate. The city generally sees equable temperatures year round, with some of the mildest weather in all of Somaliland. Despite its location in the tropics, due to the high altitude, temperatures rarely exceed 30 degrees Celsius. Nights are frequently chilly, even during the summer season. This is a trait shared with very few places in the world; notable locations with similar climate are Sana'a in Yemen or Arequipa in Peru. The city receives on average under 400 mm of precipitation annually. Average monthly temperatures range from 14.3 C in the month of December to 19.7 C in the month of July. Absolute minimum temperatures sometimes touch or cross zero degrees Celsius isotherm.
The total population of Erigavo (Ceerigaabo) city is 114,846 residents. The city is primarily inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group. It is wholly dominated by the Habar Yoonis sub-clan of Isaaq clan. Several minority clans such as Habar Jeclo, Magaadle, Gahayle, Warsangali, and Ugayslabe are also present in the city.
Higher learning in Erigavo is provided by East Africa University (EAU), which has one of its six branches in the city. The Sanaag University also offers tertiary courses and degrees.And Gollis university has a branch.And also many colleges. Queen of Sheba University offers women in Sanaag free degree courses and a limited number of places worldwide in distance mode.
Town affairs are managed by the mayor of Erigavo, as appointed by Somaliland. Taxes are levied and collected by the local town council as of 1999.
As of 2009, Erigavo has two hospitals serving residents, with another being constructed. The Erigavo Airport also lies to the east of the town. Additionally, the city is the seat of a few local non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Erigavo has a modern telephone system, with widespread access to landline and mobile services. The main mobile communication services in the city are operated by the Puntland-based Golis Telecom, as well as Telcom and Telesom. STC Somaliland, another major local telecommunications company, manages electricity and telephone landlines only.
Additionally, the city is home to a Boy Scouts organization. Formed in 2005 by the local Sanaag administration, the Scouts partake in various activities, including a 2006 training program on governance, peace and leadership.Abdullahi Qarshe - Father of Somali music.
Jama Korshel – former Vice President of the Supreme Revolutionary Council