Harold L. Hamilton and Paul Turner founded the Electro-Motive Engineering Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1922, soon renaming it to Electro-Motive Company (EMC). The company developed and marketed self-propelled railcars using General Electric's newly developed internal combustion-electric propulsion and control systems. Hamilton started his railroading career as a fireman, then locomotive engineer, on the Southern Pacific Railroad, then became a manager with the Florida East Coast Railway. On leaving railroading for an automotive marketing position in Denver, Hamilton, aware of recent developments in electric propulsion, the technology of heavy vehicles, and the needs of railroads, recognized the opportunities for internal combustion power with railroading. Financing himself, he quit his truck sales position and set up shop in a hotel with his partner and a designer. In 1923 EMC sold two gasoline-powered rail motor cars, one to the Chicago Great Western and the other to the Northern Pacific. EMC subcontracted the body construction to St. Louis Car Company, electrical components to General Electric, and the prime mover to Winton Engine Company. The motorcars were delivered in 1924 and worked well, fortunate for the fledgling company, because the sales were conditional on satisfactory performance. In 1925, EMC entered full-scale production, selling 27 railcars.
In 1930 General Motors (GM) was seeking to improve their Diesel technology and broaden its range of applications. They purchased the Winton Engine Company who, in addition to their Diesel products, sold non-Diesel engines for EMC-developed rail motorcars. The combined resources of GM and their new Winton subsidiary were focused on developing Diesel engines with improved power-to-weight ratios and output flexibility suitable for mobile use. GM saw EMC's role in marketing and applications development as fitting their objectives and purchased the company shortly after the Winton acquisition, renaming it Electro-Motive Corporation (EMC). In 1933 EMC designed the power setups for the Zephyr and M-10000 streamliners, a breakthrough in the power and speed available with their propulsion systems. The Zephyr used the first major product of the new GM-Winton venture, the 600 hp Winton 201A 2-stroke Diesel engine.
Encouraged by the success of the new custom streamliners, EMC invested in a new locomotive factory and started development work on the locomotives that it would produce. The new headquarters on 55th Street in McCook, Illinois, west of Chicago, remains the corporate headquarters. The 1935 EMC 1800 hp B-B boxcab development design locomotives featured the multiple-unit control systems that became the basis of cab/booster locomotive sets, and the twin 900 hp Winton Diesel engine power unit format that would be adopted for the Budd-built Zephyr power units in 1936 and EMC's E series streamlined passenger locomotives that the new factory began producing in 1937.
In 1938 EMC started production of locomotives using GM's new 567 engine, which upgraded the horsepower to 2000 per locomotive unit and increased reliability. The 567, named for its displacement-per-cylinder of 567.45 in³ (bore 8½ inches, stroke 10 inches), was a two-cycle (or two-stroke) Roots-blown, Uniflow-scavenged, Unit-injected engine with overhead camshafts and four exhaust valves per cylinder. It was built as a V-6, V-8, V-12 and V-16. Charles F. Kettering and the General Motors Research Corporation were in charge of its development.
GM-Winton-EMC's long development efforts put the company in a unique position relative to other developers of Diesel-electric locomotion who had remained focused on the lower power and speed requirements of switch engines. Their nearest competitor was the American Locomotive Company (ALCO), who started production of less-developed Diesel locomotives to compete with the E-units in 1939. EMD's other main competitor, the venerable Baldwin Locomotive Works, had their development work in Diesel delayed by their belief through 1930s that the future of mainline service remained with steam, and by financial difficulties that effectively froze their Diesel development while EMD and ALCO continued theirs. Baldwin's response to the challenge of the E-units was to develop a steam locomotive design that pushed beyond the limits of practicality.
Passenger trains made little money for the railroads, but replacement of steam engines with reliable Diesel units could provide railroads with a crucial difference for profitability. With standardized production of locomotives, EMC simplified the process for ordering, manufacturing, and servicing locomotives and introduced economies of scale that would lower unit costs. The lowered hurdles for ordering Diesel locomotives lent momentum to their market in the last years before US entry into World War II. The performance of the new 567 engine in passenger locomotives built confidence in the viability of Diesel power for freight service. The market for mainline passenger locomotives also gave EMC experience and future contacts for breaking into the largest market, freight service.
In 1939 the company built a four-unit freight locomotive demonstrator, the EMD FT, and began a tour of the continent's railroads. The tour was a success. Western railroads in particular saw that the Diesels could free them from dependence on scarce water supplies for steam locomotives. In 1940, after incorporating dynamic braking at the suggestion of customers, they were receiving their first orders for the new freight locomotive.
General Motors merged EMC and part of Winton Engine to create the Electro-Motive Division (EMD) on January 1, 1941. Production of Winton's nonlocomotive products (large submarine, marine, and stationary diesel engines) continued under GM's Cleveland Diesel Engine Division for another twenty years.
In January 1941 EMD delivered the first FT unit to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, numbered Unit 100, and through that year they were in full-stride production of passenger and freight locomotives. World War II temporarily slowed EMD's locomotive production; Navy ships gained priority for Diesel power and the petroleum crisis of 1942-43 made coal-fired steam a more attractive option. The War Production Board stopped production of new passenger equipment between September 1942 and February 1945. In 1943, Diesel locomotive production for freight service regained momentum as more locomotives were needed to haul wartime supplies. By the end of the war EMD's production was in full swing. By the time the FT model was replaced in 1945, 555 cab units and 541 booster units were produced.
EMD emerged from the war years with major advantages for over competitors in Diesel locomotive production, having entered the war years with fully developed lines of mainline road Diesel locomotives while war production allocations restricted their competitors, principally the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) and the Baldwin Locomotive Works, to selling mainly diesel switchers and steam locomotives of pre-existing designs. That impeded their state of technical development with higher powered Diesels in the critical postwar years. New model passenger EMD E-units were delivered starting in February 1945. New models of their freight locomotive followed later in 1945 and 1946.
By the late 1940s the majority of American railroads had decided to transition from steam to Diesel power, known as Dieselization. The demand for Diesel-powered passenger service did not grow at the same rate as for freight service, as air and automobile travel were the burgeoning modes of passenger travel. Nevertheless, the lower profit margins of passenger service made the cost advantages of Diesel over steam all the more critical and steam power was increasingly seen as dirty, smelly, and dated among the travelling public. To meet post-war demands, EMD opened another locomotive production facility in 1948 at Cleveland, Ohio.
ALCO-GE was EMD's most serious competitor during the Dieselization era, having produced the first road-switcher Diesel locomotives in 1941 and gained about a 40% market share of Diesel locomotives, mostly for switching and short-haul applications, as of 1948. ALCO's attempts to develop higher powered locomotives for mainline service had been less successful, as they were plagued by reliability problems. In 1948 the ALCO-GE partnership developed a prototype gas-turbine-electric locomotive; customer delivery began in 1952. Baldwin's early ventures into road Diesel production, while innovative, borrowed ill-suited design and production concepts from steam and electric locomotives, and were not sufficiently reliable to gain acceptance. Baldwin's postwar steam turbine-electric locomotives were spectacularly unsuccessful. Fairbanks-Morse entered the locomotive industry at the end of the war by partnering with General Electric to produce "Erie-built" locomotives using F-M's opposed-piston engine that they had developed for marine use. In early 1949 GE ended the partnership, undermining F-M's tentative foothold in the industry. Facing desperation as the market for steam power collapsed, Lima-Hamilton produced a total of 174 Diesel locomotives of various models starting in 1949 but it was too little too late to make the company a serious player in the Diesel business. By 1950 it was clear that EMD's competitors could not crack their position in mainline road Diesels and their introduction of the EMD GP7 road-switcher locomotive in 1949 marked their arrival in the mainstay of ALCO's business.
In 1949, EMD opened a new plant in London, Ontario, Canada, which was operated by subsidiary General Motors Diesel (GMD), producing existing EMD as well as unique GMD designs for the Canadian domestic and export markets. That same year, EMD introduced a new locomotive that broke into the short-haul market dominated by ALCO's road-switchers while also serving as a competent long distance hauler, the EMD GP7. The road-switcher design resembles an expanded diesel switcher, with the engine, main generator, and other equipment covered with an easily removed hood (thus more recent name for these locomotives, hood units). This hood being narrower than the locomotive, the crew has visibility in both directions from a cab placed near one end and access to the exterior of the locomotive while underway. The structural strength in the hood unit is in the chassis, rather than in a carbody as with EMD's earlier models (The sag-prone chassis of the GP7 became a known flaw, corrected with EMD's later road-switchers). Owing to their ease of maintenance and versatility, most locomotives produced in the North America for domestic use since the 1960s have been hood units.
The 1950s left EMD with only one serious competitor, the General Electric Company. Lima-Hamilton failed first, in 1951 merging with Baldwin to form Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton. Baldwin's own position was precarious, with their market share continuing to dwindle as they continued to offer what were essentially development design locomotives in the road Diesel market. By the mid-1950s Baldwin was effectively shut out of the market but made one more attempt at steam turbine-electric power, resulting in one customer delivery, then left the locomotive business in 1956. Fairbanks-Morse, after partnering with General Electric, Westinghouse, and Canadian Locomotive Company to produce a series of locomotives that never established a solid reputation and sold poorly, left the locomotive field in 1963. ALCO remained competitive while backed by the industrial might of General Electric, however, GE dissolved the partnership in the wake of ALCO's lackluster development of higher powered engines for mainline road locomotives. General Electric's new subsidiary GE Rail took over the ALCO-GE gas-turbine-electric venture in 1953. By 1956 GE was marketing its own Universal series Cooper-Bessemer powered Diesel-electrics as export locomotives. In 1959 the U25B was the first of GE's road locomotives powered by GE's FDL-16 Diesel engine, which would seriously challenge EMD's position in the mainline locomotive market. From the mid-1950s onward, ALCO's position slipped steadily until the company went out of business in 1969.
The 567 engine was continuously improved and upgraded. The original six-cylinder 567 produced 600 hp (450 kW), the V-12 1,000 hp (750 kW), and the V-16 1,350 hp (1,010 kW). EMD began turbocharging the 567 around 1958; the final version, the 567D3A (built from October, 1963, to about January, 1966) produced 2,500 hp (1,900 kW) in its V-16 form.
As the 1960s opened EMD was compelled to respond to the challenge offered by GE's U25B, upgrading the features of their GP (General Purpose) and SD (Special Duty/Standard Duty) series locomotives, boosting the power of their 567 engines, then developing the more powerful 645 engines. Those endeavors as well as the feature upgrades introduced with the SD40-2 were sufficient to maintain EMD's competitive advantage over GE until the mid-1980s.
In late 1965, EMD introduced the enlarged 645 engine. Power ratings were 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-12 nonturbocharged, 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-8 turbocharged, 2,300 hp (1,700 kW) V-12 turbocharged, 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) V-16 nonturbocharged, and 3,000 hp (2,200 kW) V-16 turbocharged. In late 1965 EMD built their first twenty-cylinder engine, a turbocharged 3,600 hp (2,700 kW) V20 for the EMD SD45. The final variant of the sixteen cylinder 645 (the 16-645F) produced 3,500 hp (2,600 kW).
In 1972, EMD introduced modular control systems with the Dash-2 line; the EMD SD40-2 became one of the most successful diesel locomotive designs in history. A total of 3,945 SD40-2 units were built; if the earlier SD40 class locomotives are included, the total increases to 5,752 units.
EMD introduced their new 710 engine in 1984 with the 60 Series locomotives (EMD SD60 and EMD GP60), the EMD 645 engine continued to be offered in certain models (such as the 50 Series) until 1988. The 710 is produced as an eight-, twelve-, sixteen-, and twenty-cylinder engine for locomotive, marine and stationary applications. Concurrently with the introduction of the 710, EMD's control systems on locomotives changed to microprocessors, with computer-controlled wheel slip prevention, among other systems.
After the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement came into effect in 1989, EMD decided to consolidate all locomotive production at the GMD plant in London, Ontario, a development which ended locomotive production at the La Grange, Illinois plant in 1991, although the Illinois facility continued to produce engines and generators. EMD's North American market share dropped below that of its main competitor General Electric in the 1980s.
In the late 1980s and 1990s EMD introduced AC induction motor drive in EMD locomotives using Siemens technology. In the early 1990s, EMD introduced the radial steering truck, which reduced wheel and track wear.
In 1998 EMD introduced the four-stroke sixteen cylinder 265H-Engine, at 6,300 hp (4,700 kW) the most powerful engine ever produced by EMD, used as the prime mover in the EMD SD90MAC-H locomotive. Instead of completely replacing the 710 series engine, the H-engine was concurrently produced alongside EMD's two stroke engines, although mainly for export. Acceptance of the 265H was limited over reliability issues. As a historical note, the 265H was the first four-stroke engine offered to the market by EMD or its ancestral companies since the Winton 201A introduced their breakthrough in two-stroke Diesel power.
Post-1995 710 engines have electronically controlled unit injectors (EUIs) in the same position and space as the former (1938–1995) unit injectors (UIs).
In 1999, Union Pacific placed the largest single order for diesel locomotives in North American railroad history when they ordered 1,000 units of the EMD SD70M. Union Pacific's fleet of SD70Ms has since been expanded by more than 450 additional units. In addition, Union Pacific also owns nearly 500 EMD SD70ACe's, a number of which have been painted in "Fallen Flags" (acquired/merged railroads) commemorative liveries. All of these locomotives are 710G-powered.
The year 2004 saw CSX Transportation take delivery of the first SD70ACe units, which were advertised by EMD as more reliable, fuel efficient, and easier to maintain than predecessor model SD70MAC. The model meets the EPA Tier 2 emission requirements using the two-stroke 710 diesel engine.
The following year Norfolk Southern became the first carrier to receive the new SD70M-2 - successor to the SD70M. Like its sister roadswitcher, the SD70ACe, the SD70M-2 meets EPA Tier 2 requirements using the same engine. And like the "ACe", the "M-2" is certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004.
In June 2004, The Wall Street Journal published an article indicating EMD was being put up for sale. On January 11, 2005, Reuters published a story indicating a sale to "two private U.S. equity groups" was likely to be announced "this week". Confirmation came the following day, with a press release issued by General Motors, stating it had agreed to sell EMD to a partnership led by Greenbriar Equity Group LLC and Berkshire Partners LLC. The newly spun-off company was called Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., thus retaining the famous "EMD" initials. The sale closed on April 4, 2005.
On June 1, 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it had agreed to buy Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire et al. for $820 million. Caterpillar's wholly owned subsidiary, Progress Rail Services Corporation, completed the transaction on August 2, 2010, making Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation. Although Caterpillar announced that John S. Hamilton would continue in his roles of president and CEO of EMD after the close of the transaction, Mr. Hamilton left EMD for unspecified reasons in late August 2010.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Tier-4 locomotive emissions regulations on new locomotives went into effect on January 1, 2015. As of that date EMD's 710-engined locomotives (e.g. SD70ACe's) could be built only for use outside the contiguous United States (i.e. Canada, Alaska, Mexico, and overseas). EMD had originally thought the 710 engine could be modified or "tuned-up" to meet Tier-4 standards, but it was not able to meet those requirements while maintaining optimum performance and reliability during rigorous "real world conditions" tests. Development of a Tier-4 compliant locomotive shifted from its original focus on the two-stroke 710 to the four-stroke 1010J engine, derived from the 265H engine.
The first (pre-production) locomotive using the 1010J engine, the SD70ACe-T4, using a 4,600 horsepower (3,400 kW) (4,400 traction hp) 12 cylinder engine was unveiled in late 2015. Testing of the new locomotives began in the Spring of 2016. The first two units of a 65 unit order for the new locomotive were delivered to Union Pacific in December 2016.
EMD continues to offer 710-powered locomotives for export as well as "ECO" upgrade packages for modernizing of older locomotives, which sustained their business during the hiatus of locomotive production for the domestic market.
EMD currently maintains major facilities in McCook, Illinois, and Muncie, Indiana in the United States, Sete Lagoas, Brazil and San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The company operated a manufacturing facility in London, Ontario, Canada until its closure in 2012.
Since its ground breaking in 1935, the La Grange facility has been the headquarters for EMD. In addition to the corporation's administrative offices, La Grange houses design engineering, emissions testing, rebuild operations, and manufacturing of major components, including prime mover engines, traction alternators, electrical cabinets, and turbochargers. The La Grange facility includes three main buildings, with over 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space. Ancillary buildings are used to provide maintenance and testing capabilities. EMD La Grange is ISO 9001:2008 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.
The EMD London plant opened in 1950 as part of General Motors Diesel Division (GMDD) to produce locomotives. The facility was at times used to produce a variety of products in the General Motors family, including transit buses, and military vehicles. Situated on a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site, the EMD London facility included two main buildings and multiple ancillary buildings with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space, as well as a locomotive test track. London was the primary site for the assembly, painting and testing of EMD locomotives. The facility also manufactured components, such as locomotive underframes, traction motors, truck assemblies, and locomotive equipment racks. EMD London was ISO 9001:2000 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.
EMD London's Canadian location was useful for General Motors' when attempting to procure Canadian federal contracts.
In January 2012, 450 Canadian Auto Workers union workers were locked out of the EMD London facility, after refusing to ratify EMD's proposed new contract which included a pay cut of 50% for some workers - labour costs at the Canadian plant were much greater than in some of the company's US plants. In February 2012 Progress Rail Services announced the closure of the plant; Caterpillar's actions were criticised in Canada; the company stated it would relocate production to other sites in North and South America, including the un-unionised plant in Muncie. At the time of closure the plant employed approximately 775 people directly.
On April 14, 2010, Electro-Motive opened a facility in San Luis Potosí, Mexico for the maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul of traction motors and other electrical equipment.
In October 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it was investing US$50 million to acquire and to renovate an existing 740,000-square-foot (69,000 m2) building for assembly of EMD brand locomotives and to build a locomotive test track on a 75-acre (0.30 km2) site located in Muncie, Indiana. The Muncie facility allows EMD to supply locomotives to publicly funded passenger rail agencies that require their rail equipment be assembled in the United States exclusively. (see Buy America Act (1983).)
On July 25, 2011, it was announced that production at the facility was planned to begin by the end of the year, with 125 workers having been hired and plans to add more. On October 28, the plant was officially opened, and the first locomotive produced at the plant, a Ferromex SD70ACe #4092, was rolled out.
The company also entered into subcontracting and licensing arrangements, both for whole locomotives, and diesel and electrical drivetrains (genset plus traction motors and control electronics)
In Europe licensees included Henschel (Germany), 1950s-80s which manufactured locomotives for export to African, South Asian, and Scandinavian counties as well as Austria; NOHAB (Sweden), 1950s-70s, and after NOHAB's closure Kalmar Verkstad (KVAB) (Sweden), 1980s. When the KVAB and Henschel factories were acquired by ABB Group in 1990 EMD-license manufacture ended.
In Belgium EMD-engined locomotives were manufactured by Société Anglo-Franco-Belge, and then by La Brugeoise et Nivelles in the 1950s and 60s.
In Spain MACOSA and its successors assembled and manufactured EMD locomotives including standard EMD export designs as well as variants for the domestic market, as of 2011 EMD-engined diesels are still manufactured in Spain as the Vossloh Euro series.
Đuro Đaković of Croatia (Yugoslavia) also held a license from EMD and manufactured locomotives for the Yugoslav Railways.
By 2000 EMD had produced with its collaborators around 300 locomotives using EMD technology in Scandinavia, 500 in western Europe, and 400 in eastern Europe. Approximately 75% of EMD's European locomotives sold by 2000 were license built in Europe. The company also entered into a collaboration (early 2000s) with Lyudinovsky Locomotive Plant (Russia) (Людиновский тепловозостроительный завод), (now part of Sinara Group) creating a single-body eight axle 3MW (Bo'Bo')'(Bo'Bo')' diesel locomotive ТЭРА1, powered by an EMD 710 16-cylinder engine. In the early 2010s the company began a collaboration with Croatian rolling stock company TŽV Gredelj.
Locomotives were also assembled by General Motors Industria Argentina, General Motors South African (Pty) Ltd, and under license by Delta Motor Corporation (South Africa), Equipamentos Villares S.A. (Brazil), and Hyundai (Korea). Bombardier Transportation has also acted as subcontrator, manufacturing units at its plant in Sahagun, Mexico since 1998; with over one-thousand locomotives completed by 2007. The manufacturing agreement continued under Progress Rail ownership.
In Australia Clyde Engineering used EMD components in locally manufactured locomotives beginning in the 1950s, the company was succeeded by Downer Rail (EDI rail division).
In India the Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) has manufactured EMD designs since the late 1990s. In 2010 EMD announced its intention to establish its own manufacturing facility in India, potentially in Bihar through a PPP project with the state government, or in Uttar Pradesh. As of 2011 EMD's cooperative development association with Indian Railways is ongoing.
In China CNR Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Company has manufactured the EMD-designed units China Railways HXN3 (JT56ACe) since 2008.
In 2012 the EMD formed a joint venture with Barloworld, Electro-Motive Diesel Africa (Proprietary) Limited, to supply locomotive and rail related products to the sub-saharan African market. In September 2012, EMD also signed a deal with Bombardier Transportation; Bombardier's factory in Savli, in India, would assemble EMD products for Asian customers.
EMD also provides maintenance services, technical support, parts inventory, and sales and marketing services from many other locations spread throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, China, India, Pakistan, Australia, Germany, Switzerland, Brazil, Egypt, and South Africa.
EMD has produced the following series of engines:EMD 567 — no longer in production; 567AC, 567BC, 567C, 567D and "567E" engines may be retrofitted with 645 Power assemblies and other major components, mainly for so-called "life-extension" programs; 567E engines are actually 645E blocks which were originally manufactured with 567 power assemblies
EMD 645 — "E- and F-Engines"; Currently in production by request; most 645 major assemblies remain in new production for replacement purposes
EMD 710 — "G-Engine"; Currently in production, but restricted to use outside the U.S. due to EPA Tier 4 emissions regulations taking effect in 2015; unit injectors on pre-1995 engines, electronically controlled unit injectors on post-1995 engines
EMD 265 — "H-Engine"; no longer in domestic production, and most existing 265-powered locomotives in North America have been removed from service.
EMD 1010 — "J-Engine"; Currently in production. First introduced at the Railway Interchange Expo 2015 at BNSF North Town Yard, Minneapolis, Minnesota, from October 4 to October 7, 2015. This new engine is first used on SD70ACe-T4, the new Tier 4 freight locomotive from EMD. This engine features a two-stage turbocharging system consisting of three turbochargers: one turbo (the primary/high pressure turbo) for low-mid RPM range and two turbos (the secondary/low pressure turbos) for mid-high RPM range. The results are bigger power throughout a broader RPM range, better fuel efficiency, and lower emission.
Most of the above locomotive engines were available, in modified form, for stationary and marine work. Marine engines differ from railroad and stationary engines mainly in the shape and depth of the engine's oil sump, which has been altered to accommodate the rolling and pitching motions encountered in marine applications.
A new aluminum block lightweight compact engine was designed that ran at a higher rpm. These engines feature a vertical crankshaft and the cylinders were arranged in an X pattern of four cylinder banks in four cylinder rows. These were the 16-184 and 16-338 "pancake" engines. The 16-388 engine was 13.5 feet (4.1 m) from the base of the generator to the top of the air intake filter and 4 feet (1.2 m) wide. It is a mechanically injected two-stroke diesel engine that used a roots blower. The 16-184A was installed in some 110-foot (34 m) subchasers of the SC-497 class during World War II. The two 1,540 bhp (1,150 kW) 16-184A diesel engines driving two shafts produced a faster subchaser that achieved 21 knots.
The EMD 16-338 developed 1,090 bhp (810 kW) at 1600 rpm. On the top was an air intake then four layers of four cylinders each. Each cylinder had a 6-inch (15 cm) bore and a 6 1⁄2-inch (17 cm) stroke. On the bottom of the crank shaft was an Elliot generator which developed 817 kW at a maximum of 710 volts DC. This proved problematic as the engine fluids ran down into the generator. The whole engine weighed just over eight tons. Being 4 feet wide it allowed for four engines in an engine room only 22 feet (6.7 m) long and also allowed design engineers to eliminate a submarine engine room. The Tang-class submarine and the research submarine USS Albacore used the troublesome EMD 16-338. On the Tang-class the Navy decided to replace the "pancake" engines with ten-cylinder Fairbanks-Morse opposed-piston 38D 8-1/8 diesels. The unreliability and lack of spares led to the decommissioning of USS Albacore in 1972 as further cannibalized parts became unavailable.
EMD has produced yard slugs used by railways to provide additional power to primary locomotives in rail yards. Some are rebuilt from EMD GP9 locomotives.
The following reporting marks are listed for rolling stock:EMDX — Electro-Motive Division Leasing
EMLX — Electro-Motive Division Leasing
GMCX — General Motors Corporation
GMDX — General Motors Diesel Canada