Duke of Burgundy (French: duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France.
Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the Capetians, the French royal family. It was granted to Robert's younger son, Robert, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct, it was inherited by John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy as an appanage for his younger son, Philip the Bold. The Valois Dukes of Burgundy became dangerous rivals to the senior line of the House of Valois. When the male line of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became extinct, it was confiscated by Louis XI of France.
Today, the title is used by the House of Bourbon as a revived courtesy title.
The first margrave (marchio), later duke (dux), of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes, whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.
His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century later by the French crown, their suzerain.Richard the Justiciar (880–921)
Rudolph (921–923), then King of France
Hugh the Black (923–952)
Eudes Henry the Great (965–1002)
Otto William (1002–1004)
In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule what would come to be called the Free County of Burgundy. His descendants formed another House of Ivrea.Robert (1004–16) (also king of France as Robert II)
Henry (1016–32) (also king of France as Henry I)
Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry.
John II of France, the second Valois king, successfully claimed the Duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John then passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage.
In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance.
Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire. They often used the term Burgundy to refer to it (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Circle it was grouped into), until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to French Republic. The Habsburgs also continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois.Maximilian I (1477–1482 with his wife; regent 1482–1494)
Philip IV the Handsome (German: Philipp der Schöne; French: Philippe le Bel), titular Duke of Burgundy as Philip IV (1482–1506)
Charles II (Emperor Charles V and King Charles I of Spain) 1506–1555
Philip V (King Philip II of Spain) 1556–1598
Philip VI (King Philip III of Spain) 1598–1621
Philip VII (King Philip IV of Spain) 1621–1665
Charles III (King Charles II of Spain) 1665–1700
The title was briefly claimed by king Philip V of Spain (Philip VIII) of the House of Bourbon between 1700–1713 when the succession of the Spanish throne was disputed between the Houses of Habsburg and Bourbon.
At the same time, various members of the French royal family, most notably Louis, Dauphin of France, the father of Louis XV of France, also used the title.Charles IV (Emperor Charles VI) 1713–1740
Maria Theresa 1740–1780
Francis I (Emperor Francis I) (1740–1765 with his wife.)
Joseph (Emperor Joseph II) 1780–1790
Leopold (Emperor Leopold II) 1790–1792
Francis II (Emperor Francis II) 1792–1795
King Juan Carlos I of Spain (1975–2014)
King Felipe VI of Spain (2014–present) – the title is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown
Prince Louis of Bourbon (2010–present) – the title is used by eldest son of the legitimist claimant to the French throne Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou.