Rahul Sharma (Editor)

Confusion

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Covid-19
Specialty  Psychiatry
ICD-9-CM  298.9
MeSH  D003221
ICD-10  R41.0
MedlinePlus  003205

Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

Contents

Medical term

The term "acute mental confusion" is often used interchangeably with delirium in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the Medical Subject Headings publications to describe the pathology. These refer to the loss of orientation, or the ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location and personal identity. Mental confusion is sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness (the loss of linear thinking) and memory loss (the ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material).

Causes

Confusion may result from drug side effects or from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. Acute confusion is often called delirium (or "acute confusional state"), although delirium often includes a much broader array of disorders than simple confusion. These disorders include the inability to focus attention; various impairments in awareness; and temporal or spatial dis-orientation. Mental confusion can result from chronic organic brain pathologies, such as dementia, as well.

Other causes of confusion

  • Alcoholism
  • Aluminium Toxicity
  • Anemia
  • Anxiety
  • Brain Damage
  • Brain Tumor
  • Brief Psychotic Disorder
  • Concussion
  • Dehydration
  • Encephalopathy
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Brain Injury
  • Heat Stroke
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Jet Lag
  • Kidney Failure
  • Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
  • Lassa Fever
  • Lewy Body Dementia
  • Listeria
  • Lyme Disease
  • Meningitis
  • Postpartum Depression
  • Reye's Syndrome
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
  • Schizophrenia
  • Seizure (Epilepsy)
  • Shock (Medical)
  • Sick Building Syndrome
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Stroke
  • Yellow Fever
  • STDs in Men
  • Streptococcal Infections
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)
  • Acute Porphyria
  • West Nile Virus
  • Differential diagnosis

    The most common causes of drug induced acute confusion are dopaminergic drugs (used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease), diuretics, tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines. The elderly, and especially those with pre-existing dementia, are most at risk for drug induced acute confusional states. New research is finding a link between Vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment (which includes 'foggy brain').

    References

    Confusion Wikipedia


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