Puneet Varma

Canthidermis maculata

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Kingdom  Animalia
Family  Balistidae
Genus  Canthidermis
Order  Tetraodontiformes
Class  Actinopterygii
Phylum  Chordata
Rank  Species
Canthidermis maculata httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonscc
Similar  Canthidermis, Tetraodontiformes, Canthidermis sufflamen, Masked triggerfish, Stone triggerfish

Canthidermis maculata, also known as rough triggerfish or spotted oceanic triggerfish, is a species of triggerfish native to the tropical and subtropical oceans worldiwide. Unlike most triggerfish, they are mostly pelagic.


In the Philippines, it is locally called as Tikos in the Cebuano language and is abundant in the Visayas and Mindanao island groups.

Distribution and habitat

It range in the western Pacific Ocean ranges from the Gulf of Thailand north to the Yellow Sea and Japan. The range in the Pacific Ocean extends to the Philippines, Indonesia, and all the way to Polynesia and Hawaii. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, They are found from Mexico and around the Gulf of California down to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Around the Indian Ocean, it ranges from the Red Sea and eastern Africa to Seychelles, the Maldives, the Persian Gulf, India, Sri Lanka, the Andaman Sea, Australia, and Indonesia. Populations in the Atlantic Ocean range from New York down to the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, the Caribbean Sea and down to Brazil in the western side. Around the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it ranges from the British Isles and the Bay of Biscay to Azores, the Canary Islands and western Africa. Some populations are also found in South Africa. This species of fish is found in open seas. It occurs at depth of 0 to 110 metres (0 to 361 ft).


The maximum length for this species is 50 centimetres (20 in) but usually grows up to 35 centimetres (14 in). Adults and juveniles have different coloration. Adults are blue grayish while juveniles are grayish black with white spots that fade over age. In this fish, the dorsal and anal fins are curved on the back. The dorsal fin of this species has from 23 to 27 rays. Its anal fin has 20 to 27 rays. Adults and juveniles also have different cadual fin shapes. Juveniles have rounded cadual fins and adults have concave ones.


Canthidermis maculata is considered either a carnivorous or a planktivorous fish. It feeds on pelagic crustaceans, fish larva, and zooplankton.


In the wild, this fish species is found in large schools. They are usually associated with objects floating around.

Importance to humans

This fish species shows some importance to commercial fishing. It is eaten by some people as a food fish. Some importance of this species to humans is also shown by being sold in the market. Even more rarely, it is sold as an aquarium fish. There have been reports of ciguatera poisoning in some humans that consumed the fish.

Life cycle

The fish starts out as eggs. Once they hatch, they become pelagic larva. After the pelagic larva grow up into juveniles, they start taking their adult form.


Adults pair up and breed.


Canthidermis maculata Wikipedia

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Masked triggerfish