| Adolf Windaus|
| 24 March 1903
Lehe/Bremerhaven, German Empire (1903-03-24) |
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute / Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry
Technical University of Danzig
January 18, 1995, Munich, Germany
University of Gottingen, University of Marburg
Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize
Organic chemistry, Biochemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1939), War Merit Cross (1942)
Adolf Butenandt Wikipedia
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy, but accepted it in 1949 after World War II. He was President of the Max Planck Society from 1960 to 1972.
Born in Lehe, near Bremerhaven, he started his studies at the University of Marburg.
For his Ph.D he joined the working group of the Nobel laureate Adolf Windaus at the University of Göttingen and he finished his studies with a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1927.
Adolf Windaus and Walter Schöller of Schering gave him the advice to work on hormones extracted from ovaries. This research lead to the discovery of estrone and other primary female sex hormones, which were extracted from several thousand liters of urine. While working as professor in Gdańsk at the Chemisches Institut he was continuing his works over hormones extracting progesterone in 1934 and testosterone a year later, obtaining a substantial part of research results awarded later by Nobel Committee in 1939.
For this research he won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1939 together with Leopold Ružička who was involved in the synthesis of several newly discovered steroids.
After his Habilitation he became lecturer in Göttingen 1931. He was professor at the Technical University of Danzig 1933-1936, and after a visit in the US, he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry (later the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry) in Berlin-Dahlem beginning in 1936.
In 1933 Butenandt had signed the Loyalty Oath of German Professors to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist State.
Butenandt joined the NSDAP on 1 May 1936 (party member No. 3716562). As the head of a leading institute, he applied for government funding on concentrated research labeled kriegswichtig (important for the war), some of which focused on military projects like the improvement of oxygen uptake for high-altitude bomber pilots. His involvement with the Nazi regime and various themes of research led to criticism after the war, and even after his death the exact nature of his political orientation during the Nazi era has never been fully resolved. When the institute moved to Tübingen in 1945 he became a professor at the University of Tübingen. In 1956, when the institute relocated to Martinsried, a suburb of Munich, Butenandt became a professor at the University of Munich. He also served as president of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science following Otto Hahn from 1960 to 1972.
Butenandt is credited with the discovery and naming of the silkworm moth pheromone Bombykol in 1959.
Butenandt died in Munich in 1995, at the age of 91. His wife Erika, born in 1906, died in 1995 at 88.1939: Nobel Prize in Chemistry (shared with Leopold Ruzicka) for the identification of the sex hormones, oestrogen, progesterone and androsterone
1942: War Merit Cross (Germany)
1953: Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize
1959: Grand Merit Cross with Star and Sash of the Federal Republic of Germany (1959 and 1964)
1960: Honorary Citizen of the City of Bremerhaven
1961: Wilhelm Normann Medal of the German Society for Fat Research
1962: Bavarian Order of Merit
1962: Pour le Mérite
1964: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
1967: Cultural Award of the City of Munich
1969: Commander of the French Legion of Honour
1972: Ordre des Palmes Académiques
1981: Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
1985: Grand Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
1985: Honorary Citizen of the City of Munich
1994: Grand Gold Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
1951 - 1992: 31 participations in the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings (record)
Honorary President of the Max Planck Society
Honorary Doctor of Medicine (MD H.C.)
Honorary Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (Dr. med.vet. H.C.)
Honorary Doctor of Science (Dr. rer. Hc)
Honorary Doctor of Philosophy (Dr. phil. H.C.)
Honorary Doctor of Science (D.Sc.), University of Leeds, 1961
Honorary Doctor of Engineering (Dr.-Ing. E.h.)