Hüseyin Sözlü (MHP)
1.849 million (2000)
| Çukurova University, Adana Science and Technology University|
Sabanc? Central Mosque, Adana Archaeology Museum, Seyhan Dam, Ulu Cami, Atatürk Museum
Adana is a large city in southern Turkey and a major agricultural, industry and commercial center. It is the fifth most populous city in Turkey. The city is situated on the Seyhan River, 30 kilometres (19 miles) inland from the Mediterranean Sea, in south-central Anatolia. It is the administrative seat of the Adana Province and has a population of 2.1 million, making it the most populated city of the region. Adana-Mersin metropolitan area, with a population of over 6 million, stretches over 70 kilometres (43 miles) from east to west and 25 kilometres (16 miles) from north to south; encompassing the cities of Mersin, Tarsus and Adana.
Adana lies in the heart of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, and Hatay. Home to approximately six million people, the region is mostly a large stretch of flat, fertile land regarded as one of the most agriculturally productive areas of the world.
Adana was included in the Roman province of Cilicia Prima, whose capital was Tarsus. It became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Tarsus, but was raised to the rank of autocephalous archdiocese after 680, the year in which its bishop appeared as a simple bishop at the Third Council of Constantinople, but before its listing in a 10th-century Notitiae Episcopatuum as an archdiocese. Its bishop Paulinus participated in the First Council of Nicaea in 325. Piso was among the Arianism-inclined bishops at the Council of Sardica (344) who withdrew and set up their own council at Philippopolis; he later returned to orthodoxy and signed the profession of Nicene faith at a synod in Antioch in 363. Cyriacus was at the First Council of Constantinople in 381. Anatolius is mentioned in a letter of Saint John Chrysostom. Cyrillus was at the Council of Ephesus in 431 and at a synod in Tarsus in 434. Philippus took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 451 and was a signatory of the joint letter of the bishops of Cilicia Prima to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian in 458 protesting at the murder of Proterius of Alexandria. Ioannes participated in the Third Council of Constantinople in 680. No longer a residential bishopric, Adana is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
Adana is located at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain, which has historically been known in the West as the Cilicia plain. This large stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus Mountains.
From Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m). It goes through the famous Cilician Gates, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.
The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam was constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from east to west. There is another canal for irrigating the Yüre?ir plain to the southeast of the city.
The 37th parallel north passes through the city.
The history of the Tepeba? tumulus in the middle of Adana dates to the Neolithic Period, 6000 B.C., and the time of the first human settlements. It is considered to be the oldest city of the Çukurova region. A place called Adana is mentioned by name in a Sumerian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.
According to the Hittite inscription of Kava, found in Hattusa (Bo?azkale), Kizzuwatna was the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Uru Adaniyya, and the inhabitants were called Danuna. Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows: Quwê Assyrians, 9th century BC; Persians, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great in 333 BC; Seleucids; the pirates of Cilicia; Roman statesman Pompey the Great; and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Cilician Kingdom).
The history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they often seem to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring Seyhan River changed its position. Their respective names also changed over the course of the centuries. Adana was of relatively minor importance during the Romans influential period, while nearby Tarsus was the metropolis of the area. During the era of Pompey, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a waystation on a Roman military road leading to the East. After the permanent split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the area became a part of the Byzantine Empire, and was probably developed during the time of Julian the Apostate. With the construction of large bridges, roads, government buildings, irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region. Ayas (today Yumurtal?k), and Kozan (formerly Sis) were the other major urban and administrative centers in the area, especially during the period of the Cilicians.
Adana is one of the first industrialized cities, as well as one of the economically developed cities of Turkey. A mid-size trading city until the mid-1800s, the city has seen attraction from European traders after the major cotton supplier, USA, turmoiled with Civil War. Çukurova farmers exported agricultural products for the first time and thus started building capital. By the start of the 20th century, factories almost all processing cotton, began to operate in the region. Factories were shut down and economy of the city had gone into deep silence in 1915, after the deportation of Armenians who ran most of the businesses in the city. Foundation of the republic, again accelerated the growth of industrialization by re-activation of closed plants and opening of state-owned new ones. With the construction of Seyhan Dam and improvements in agricultural techniques, there was an explosive growth in agricultural production during the 1950s. Large-scale industries were built along D-400 state road and Karata? road. Service industry, especially banking, also developed during this period. Rapid growth of the economy continued until the mid-1980s and was accompanied with the rise of capitalistic greed which attracted movie makers to the region, filming income inequalities and the abuse of wealth.
People of Adana, Adanal?, are well known with their bravery, honesty and generosity, but less known with their fluid intelligence that is not much bounded by structures of thought or belief systems. In a clear state of mind, this type of intelligence opens immense creativity and productivity; without clarity swings person from great production to great destruction. Unique culture of Adana, which is not seen elsewhere in Turkey, is not easily understood and often underrated. Many Adanal? have taken significant roles in the society that revolutionized the environment they are in. One prominent figure of fluid intelligence is Fatih Terim, Turkeys all-time best football coach, who carried Galatasaray to the UEFA Cup title and led Turkish Football to an upgrade at the world stage. Unawareness of his intelligence, in spite, put him in violent behavior in many instances.
One of the major elements that define the society of Adana is the agriculture based living and its extension, agriculture based industrial culture. However, the developments in the industrial life, improvements in transportation, effects of communication and massive migrations affect the unique culture of Adana. At a city where variety of cultures live, as the tissue fusion did not end, the mosaic culture can not turn to a new union of culture. Similar to other cities in Turkey, the culture in some sections in the city are very distant from each other.
Cuisine of Adana influenced mainly from Yörük, Arabic and Armenian cuisine and the city kept to its traditions tightly. Spicy, sour and fatty dishes made of meat (usually lamb) and bulghur are common. Bulghur and flour are found at all the kitchens in Çukurova. In almost every home, red pepper, spices, tahini, chopping block and pastry board can be found. The bulghur used in cooking is specific to Adana, made from dark colored hard wheat species. Bulghur that is made of other species of wheat is not used in area, because of the missing flavor.
Adana Kebab, called "Kebap" locally, is a kebab made from minced meat. Since it can be found at all kebab restaurants in Turkey and at most Turkish restaurants around the world, Adana name still bears kebab to many people. Adana Kebab is the most popular dining choice in Adana, although foods from other cultures are getting increasingly popular. Besides many kebab restaurants, there are also many kebab serving vendors on the older streets of Adana.
Adana Kebab is usually served with onion salad, green salad or with well-chopped tomato salad. Rak? and ?algam are usually accompanied with it as drinks. There are many varieties of salads typical to the city. Radish salad with tahini is popular and it is found only in the Çukurova region. ?algam and pickle juice are the drinks of the winter and a?lama (licorice juice) is the choice of drink in summer.
Vegetable dishes are also popular in the city. Besides the tomato paste, pepper paste is used in almost every dish. The city is also famous for its ??rdan a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin; paça, boiled sheeps feet; bicibici (pronounced as bee-jee-bee-jee) made from jellied starch, rose water and sugar, and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as Halka Tatl?, a round-shaped dessert, and Ta? Kaday?f, a bow-shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot, are native to this area.
Adana Archaeological Museum was opened in 1924 as one of the oldest ten museums in Turkey. It moved to its current location at the west corner of Seyhan Bridge in 1972. The museum exhibits archeological works from all over Çukurova. Notable works are the two Augustus statues from Hittites, Achilles Sarcophagus depicting Trojan War and statues from Magarsus and Augusta ancient cities.
Adana Ethnography Museum was opened in 1983 after Archeological Museum moved to its new location. At the front and back yard there are epitaph and gravestones of Adanas leading figures of the 17th century. On the west yard, there are inscriptions of Ta?köprü, Misis Bridge, old City Hall and Bahripa?a Fountain. Inside, there are clothings, jewellery and weaponry of Yörük villagemen.
Atatürk Museum exhibits War of Independence and first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana.
Misis Mosaic Museum, located on citys far east end at the west bank of Ceyhan river, exhibits mosaics that were on the floor of a 4th-century temple in the ancient city of Misis. Mosaic depicts Noah and 23 birds and poultry that he took to his ship during the flood. The museum also exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus.
Karacao?lan Museum of Literature, Adana Museum of Cinema, Ye?iloba Martyrs Museum, Mehmet Baltac? Museum of Photography and Adana Urban Museum are the other noteworthy museums of the city, many of them serving at the restored historical buildings. State Fine Arts Gallery was opened in Sabanc? Cultural Center in 1982. It carries 59 plastic pieces of art. 75.Y?l Art Gallery in Atatürk Park, Adana City Hall Art Gallery and Art Gallery in Seyhan Cultural Center are the other public art galleries.
Alt?n Koza International Film Festival is one of the top film festivals in Turkey, taking place since 1969. During the Alt?n Koza of 2009, 212 international films were shown in 11 movie theatres across the city. Long Film Contest, International Student Film Contest and Mediterrenean Cultures Film Contest are held during the festival.
International Sabanc? Theater Festival is held every year in April since 1999. At the festival in 2011, 461 artists from 17 ensembles (10 local and 7 international) performed plays that took stage at the Sabanc? Cultural Center. The festival started with an astounding opening show staged on the Seyhan River and Ta?köprü by Italian ensemble Studio Festi. "Water Symphony" show was greeted by thousands of people with great enthusiasm.
International Çukurova Instrumental Music Festival is a 2-week long festival held annually in Adana, Antakya and Gaziantep. In 2009, the festival took place for the fifth time with an opening concert from Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra. Baritone Marcin Bronikowski, pianist Vania Batchvarova, guitarist Peter Finger, cello Ozan Tunca and pianist Zöhrap Ad?güzelzade were some of the musicians performed at the festival.
Çukurova Art Days is a regional festival that takes place yearly since 2007. In 2012, the festival took place on 22–26 March in Adana, Mersin, Tarsus, Antakya, ?skenderun, Silifke, Anamur and Aleppo. There were 94 events including concerts, poetry, exhibitions, talks and conferences.
13 Kare Arts Festival began in 1999 as a festival of photography dedicated to 13 photographers of Adana who died in an accident during an AFAD (Adana Photography Amateurs Association) trip. Festival then extended to other arts. During the festival, exhibitions of nature, under-sea and architecture photography, puppet shows, shadow theater and several concerts are held. Festival takes place every December.
Adana Literature Festival held every April at Adana Center for Arts & Culture. Around 100 writers, poets and critics attend the festival and performing several talks, panels and presentations.
Ramadan Fest is a month-long festival that takes place during the month of Ramadan. During the festival, theater plays, sufi music concerts, folkloric dances and children shows held at the festival area next to the Galleria Mall.