| Nazi Germany|
Generalleutnant Heinrich Trettner
4th Parachute Division (Germany) Wikipedia
The 4th Parachute Division, (German: 4. Fallschirmjäger-Division), was a divisional-sized elite formation in the Luftwaffe during World War II. It was formed in Venice, Italy, in November 1943, from elements of 2 Fallschirmjäger Division and volunteers from the Italian 184 and 185 Airborne Division Folgore parachute divisions. Its first combat action was against the Allied landings at Anzio (Operation Shingle) as part of the I. Fallschirm Korps in January 1944. The division was mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht on 2 June 1944.
After Anzio, the division fought a rear guard action in front of Rome, and was the last German unit to leave the city on 4 June; it withdrew towards Viterbo Siena Firenze and then managed to halt the Allies at the Futa pass.
In the Winter of 1944/1945 it was positioned on the Gothic Line. In March 1945, the Division had to send the II Battalion, 12 Fallschirmjäger Regiment and the 2nd Company from the Pionier Battalion to the new 10 Fallschirmjager Division, which was being formed in Austria. It then fought at Nettuno, Florence, Rimini and Bologna and surrendered to the Allies in April 1945.