The 1st Regiment Delaware Volunteer Infantry was a United States volunteer infantry regiment raised for Union Army service in the American Civil War. Part of the II Corps it served in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
When the Civil War began in April 1861, there were only about 16,000 men in the U.S. Army, and many Southern soldiers and officers were already resigning and joining the new Confederate States Army. With this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 volunteers for three months to put down the insurrection in the South. Accordingly, the 1st Delaware was raised at Wilmington, Delaware, on May 22, 1861, and mustered into Federal service on May 28. The regiment comprised 37 officers and 742 enlisted men under the command of Colonel Henry H. Lockwood.
The original Field & Staff were:
Colonel: Henry H. Lockwood
Lieutenant Colonel: John W. Andrews
Major: Robert Lamott
Surgeon: R. W. Johnson
Assistant-Surgeon: James Knight
Adjutant: Lieutenant W. P. Seville
Quartermaster: H. Alderdice
The original Company Commanders were:
Co. A (Delaware Blues): Cpt. Evans Watson
Co. B: Cot. Charles Lamott
Co. C: Cpt. James Bare
Co. D: Cpt. James Green
Co. E (Wilmington Rifles): Cpt. Robert Mulligan
Co. F: Cpt. Thomas Crossley
Co. G (Sussex Volunteers): Cpt. J. Rodney Layton
Co. H: Cpt. S.H. Jenskins
Co. I: Cpt. James Leonard
Co. K: Cpt. Smith
The regiment was attached to the command of Major General John Dix ('Dix's Command", Department of the Potomac) and assigned to duty along the line of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. The regiment mustered out on August 30, 1861.
On July 22, 1861, the United States Congress authorized a volunteer army of 500,000 men. When in August the enlistment term for the regiment ended a new 1st Regiment was raised for a term of three years at Wilmington, Delaware, between September 10 and October 19, 1861. This time the regiment had 37 officers and 846 enlisted men under the command of Colonel John W. Andrews.
The Field & Staff were:
Colonel: John W. Andrews
Lieutenant Colonel: 0. Hopkinson
Major: Thomas A. Smyth
Surgeon: D. W. Maull
Chaplain: Thomas G. Murphey
Assistant-Surgeon: S. D. Marshall
Adjutant: First Lieutenant W. P. Saville
Quartermaster: First Lieutenant T. Y. England
Sergeant-Major: James Lewis
Quartermaster's Sergeant: Frank Wilson
Commissary Sergeant: Charles S. Sehocffer
Hospital Steward: Archibald D. O'Mera
Drum-Major: Patrick Dooley
The Company Commanders were:
Co. A: Cpt. Evans S. Watson
Co. B: Cpt. James Leonard
Co. C: Cpt. Neal Ward
Co. D: Cpt. Enoch J. Smithers
Co. E: Cpt. Edward P. Harris
Co. F: Cpt. Daniel Woodall
Co. G: Cpt. Allen Shortledge
Co. H: Cpt. John B. Tanner
Co. I: Cpt. Charles Lesper
Co. K: Cpt. Thomas Crassley
On July 1, 1864, the 3 years enlistment would have ended and the regiment would be mustered out. Instead in July 1863 the men, still having nine months of their enlistment left, got the chance to reenlist for another 3 years from now on. On December 19, 1863, three quarters of the regiment reenlisted. The 1st Delaware was upgraded to veteran status as 1st Delaware Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment. The 1st Delaware claimed to be first regiment in the Union to receive the coveted veteran status.
In April 1864 the 1st Delaware absorbed the remnants of the 2nd Delaware Infantry, a number of recruits and veterans with two complete companies.Raised at Wilmington—May 22, 1861
Mustered into Federal service—May 28
Col. Lockwood was promoted to Brigadier and was replaced by Col. John W. Andrews—August 8
Reorganized and trained at Wilmington—September 10-October 19
Moved to Fort Monroe, Virginia—October 20–21
Camp Harrison, Virginia—until May
Occupation of Norfolk, Virginia—May 10
Battle of Antietam—September 16–17
Garrison of Harpers Ferry—September 22-October 30
Movement to Falmouth, Virginia—October 30-November 17
Battle of Fredericksburg—December 12–15
Mud March—January 20–22
At Falmouth, Virginia—January–April
Col. Andrews resigned and was replaced by Col. Thomas Smyth—February 7
Battle of Chancellorsville—May 1–6
Battle of Gettysburg—July 1–3
Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap—July 5–24
Duty along the Rappahannock River and Rapidan River—July–October
Battle of Bristoe Station—October 14
Mine Run Campaign—November 26-December 2
Regiment remustered as 1st Delaware Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment—December
Overland Campaign—May 3-June 15
Battle of the Wilderness—May 5–7
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House—May 12–21
Battle of North Anna—May 23–26
On line of the Pamunkey May 26–28
Battle of Totopotomoy Creek—May 28–31
Battle of Cold Harbor—June 1–12
Before Petersburg—June 16–18
Siege of Petersburg—June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865
Received remnants of the 2nd Delaware Infantry Regiment—April
Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road—June 22–23, 1864
First Battle of Deep Bottom—July 27–28
Battle of the Crater (in reserve position)—July 30
Second Battle of Deep Bottom—August 13–20
Ream's Station—August 25
Yellow House—October 1–5
Battle of Boydton Plank Road—October 27-2
Col. Smyth was promoted and was replaced by Col. Woodall—October
Battle of Hatcher's Run—February 5–7, 1865
Watkins' House—March 25
Appomattox Campaign—March 28-April 9
Boydton Road and White Oak Ridge—March 29–31
Crow's House—March 31
Third Battle of Petersburg—April 2
In pursuit of the Army of Northern Virginia—April 3–9
Battle of Sailor's Creek—April 6
Battle of High Bridge and Farmville—April 7
Battle of Appomattox Court House—April 9
Received the veterans of the 3rd Delaware Infantry Regiment—April
At Burkesville—until May 2
March to Washington, D.C.—May 2–12
Grand Review of the Armies—May 23
At Washington, D.C.—until July
Mustered out of Federal service—July 12, 1865
At the Battle of Antietam the regiment suffered 36 men killed and mortally wounded, and 182 men wounded, being 30.8% from a total strength of 708.
At the Battle of Fredericksburg the regiment lost 10 killed, 74 wounded and 9 missing.
At the Battle of Chancellorsville the regiment lost 6 killed, 33 wounded and 10 missing.
At the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 the regiment suffered 10 killed, 54 wounded, and 13 missing, being 31% from a total strength of 251. It also had 4 different regimental commanders during the battle.
Throughout the war the regiment suffered 12 officers and 146 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, and 3 officers and 118 enlisted men killed by disease.
Four men were awarded the Medal of Honor while serving with the 1st Delaware.Battle of Antietam
Second Lieutenant Charles B. Tanner of Company H earned the medal by saving the regimental flag after the entire nine-man color guard was killed or wounded. Tanner himself was wounded three times in the battle.
Battle of Gettysburg
Private Bernard McCarren of Company C was awarded the medal for capturing a Confederate battle flag.
Private John B. Maberry of Company F was awarded the medal for capturing a Confederate battle flag.
Captain James Parke Postles of Company A received the medal for voluntarily carrying a message under heavy fire at Gettysburg.