|Covid-19|March–November – La Tribune des Peuples, a pan-European romantic nationalist periodical, is published by Adam Mickiewicz.
April 22 – Fyodor Dostoyevsky and fellow members of the literary Petrashevsky Circle are arrested for their progressive views. Sentenced to death on November 16 and facing a firing squad on December 23 he and some others are reprieved at the last moment and exiled to the katorga prison camps in Siberia.
May 1 – Charles Dickens's Bildungsroman David Copperfield begins serial publication.
May 10 – The Astor Place Riot takes place in Manhattan over a dispute between two Shakespearean actors, the American Edwin Forrest and the Englishman William Macready. Over 20 people are killed.
May 28 – Anne Brontë dies of tuberculosis at Scarborough, aged 29.
September 20 – Honoré de Balzac travels to Poland to meet Eveline Hanska, whom he will marry shortly before his death next year.
October 3 – Edgar Allan Poe is found on the streets of Baltimore delirious, "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance".
October–December – Thomas De Quincey's essay The English Mail-Coach appears in issues of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.
November – The English scholarly correspondence magazine Notes and Queries is first published.
November 14 – A public festival is held in Denmark to celebrate the 70th birthday of Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger.
Leipzig publisher B. G. Teubner begins publishing the Bibliotheca Teubneriana series of editions of the Classics.
Who's Who is published for the first time in the United Kingdom.
Philip Massinger's play Believe as You List receives its first publication, 218 years after its theatrical première.
William Harrison Ainsworth – The Lancashire Witches
Charlotte Brontë (as Currer Bell) – Shirley
François-René de Chateaubriand – Memoirs from Beyond the Grave
Charles Dickens – David Copperfield (begins serialization)
Fyodor Dostoevsky – Netochka Nezvanova
Alexandre Dumas, père – The Queen's Necklace
Paul Féval – Les Belles-de-nuit ou Les Anges de la famille
J. A. Froude – The Nemesis of Faith
Catherine Gore – The Diamond and the Pearl
Charles Kingsley – Alton Locke
Mayne Reid – The Rifle Rangers
G. W. M. Reynolds – The Bronze Statue
George Sand – La Petite Fadette (Little Fadette)
Theodor Storm – Immensee
C. Waters – Recollections of a Detective Police Officer
Charlotte Mary Yonge – The Railroad Children
Christian Friedrich Hebbel – Der Rubin
Gaspar Núñez de Arce – Amor y Orgullo
Eugène Scribe and Ernest Legouvé – Adrienne Lecouvreur
Matthew Arnold – The Strayed Reveller
Petrus Augustus de Genestet – De Sint-Nicolaasavond (Saint Nicholas's Eve)
Elias Lönnrot, comp. – Kalevala (new version)
Edgar Allan Poe – Annabel Lee, Eldorado, The Bells, A Dream Within a Dream
John Mitchell Kemble – History of the Saxons in England
Søren Kierkegaard (as Anti-Climacus) – The Sickness Unto Death (Sygdommen til Døden)
Francis Parkman – The Oregon Trail
John Ruskin – The Seven Lamps of Architecture
Henry David Thoreau – Resistance to Civil Government
George Ticknor – A History of Spanish Literature
January 22 – August Strindberg, Swedish dramatist (died 1912)
February 18 – Alexander Kielland, Norwegian novelist (died 1906)
February 27 – Václav Beneš Třebízský, Czech novelist (died 1884)
June 9 – Karl Tanera, German military writer and novelist (died 1904)
July 22 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (died 1887)
August 8 – Hume Nisbet, Scottish thriller writer, poet and artist (died 1923)
August 23 – W. E. Henley, English poet (died 1903)
August 30 – J. M. Dent, English publisher (died 1926)
September 3 – Sarah Orne Jewett, American writer (died 1909)
October 7 – James Whitcomb Riley, American writer and poet (died 1916)
November 24 – Frances Hodgson Burnett, English children's writer and playwright (died 1924)
January 6 – Hartley Coleridge, English poet and critic, (alcohol-related, born 1796)
February 8 – France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (liver disease, born 1800)
February 19 – Bernard Barton, English Quaker poet (born 1784)
May 22 – Maria Edgeworth, Anglo-Irish novelist (born 1768)
May 28 – Anne Brontë, English novelist and poet (tuberculosis, born 1820)
June 4 – Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington, Irish novelist and literary hostess (born 1789)
July 7 – Goffredo Mameli, Italian poet (infection from bayonet wound, born 1827)
July 12 – Horace (Horatio) Smith, English poet and novelist (born 1899)
July 25 – James Kenney, English dramatist (born 1780)
July 27 – Charlotte von Ahlefeld, German novelist (born 1781)
July 31 – Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet and revolutionary (born 1823)
August 25 – Adele Schopenhauer, German novelist and paper-cut artist (born 1797)
October 7 – Edgar Allan Poe, American poet, short story writer, and critic, 40 (alcohol-related, born 1809)
1849 in literature Wikipedia
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1849.