|Covid-19|February – Spain besieges Gibraltar in order to recapture the territory.
February 2 – Première of Johann Sebastian Bach's solo cantata Ich habe genug, BWV 82, in Leipzig.
February 20 – The German composer George Frideric Handel becomes a British subject.
April 11 – Première of Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion (BWV 244b) at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
May 12 – History of the Moravian Church: The 18th century renewal: Brotherly Agreement adopted by the Moravian Church community at Herrnhut under the influence of Count Nicolaus Zinzendorf, the beginning of the Church's renewal.
May 31 – The Royal Bank of Scotland is founded by Royal Charter in Edinburgh.
June 11 – George, Prince of Wales, becomes King George II of Great Britain on the death of his father.
June 27 – Uxbridge, Massachusetts, is incorporated as a town.
July – History of the Ursulines in New Orleans: Seventeen Ursuline Sisters from France land in New Orleans, Louisiana, where they found the orphanage which is the predecessor of the Catholic Charities and the Ursuline Academy, making the latter the oldest continuously-operating school for girls and the oldest Catholic school in the United States.
August 13 – History of the Moravian Church: The 18th century renewal: The Moravian Church community at Herrnhut undergoes a Pentecostalist experience.
August 30 – Anne, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain, is given the title Princess Royal.
September 8 – A barn fire during a puppet show in the village of Burwell, Cambridgeshire, England, kills 78 people, many of them children.
October 11 – Coronation of George II of Great Britain. Handel's Coronation Anthems are composed for the event, including Zadok the Priest which has been played at every subsequent Coronation of the British monarch.
November 9 – Spain, France and England sign the Treaty of Seville.
November 18 – An earthquake in Tazriz, Persia kills 77,000.
November 21 – The Netherlands signs the Treaty of Seville.
November 27 – The foundation stone to the Jerusalem's Church in Berlin is laid.
An old woman known as Janet (Jenny) Horne of Loth, Sutherland, becomes the last alleged witch in the British Isles to be executed when she is burned at the stake in Dornoch, Scotland. (Some sources give the date as June 1722.)
The first Amish move to North America.
1727–1800 – Lt. Col. Francisco de Mello Palheta smuggles coffee seeds to Brazil in a bouquet, starting a coffee empire.
January 2 – James Wolfe, British general (d. 1759)
January 25 – Aron Gustaf Silfversparre
May 10 – Anne Robert Turgot, French statesman (d. 1781)
May 14 – Thomas Gainsborough, English artist (d. 1788)
July 26 – Horatio Gates, retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War (d. 1806)
August 14 – Henriette-Anne of France (d. 1752) and Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France (d. 1759), twin daughters of King Louis XV of France
August 22 – Johann Joseph Gassner, German priest (d. 1779)
October 23 – Empress Xiaoyichun of China (d. 1775)
November 26 – Artemas Ward, American Major General (d. 1800)
December 6 – Johann Gottfried Zinn (d. 1757)
December 27 – Arthur Murphy, Irish writer (d. 1805)
February 22 – Francesco Gasparini, Italian composer (b. 1661)
March 20 – Sir Isaac Newton, British scientist (b. 1642)
May 17 – Empress Catherine I of Russia (b. 1684)
June 8 – August Hermann Francke, German Protestant minister (b. 1663)
June 11 – King George I of Great Britain (b. 1660)
July 9 – Veronica Giuliani, mystic (b. 1660)
July 23 – Simon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (b. c. 1660)
August 4 – Victor-Maurice, comte de Broglie, French general (b. 1647)
August 14 – William Croft, English composer (b. 1678)
September 7 – Glückel of Hameln, German businesswoman and diarist (b. 1647)
Jakob Abbadie, Swiss Protestant preacher (b. c. 1654)
Sarah Kemble Knight, diarist (b. 1666)
November 10 – Alphonse de Tonty, French explorer and American settler (b. 1659)
December 26 – Baltasar de Zúñiga, 1st Duke of Arión, viceroy of New Spain (b. 1658)
date unknown – Jesse of Kartli, King of Georgia (b. 1680 or 1681)
1727 (MDCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Julian calendar, the 1727th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 727th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1727, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.