|Covid-19|April 27 – Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army invades mainland Scotland from the Orkney Islands but is defeated by a Covenanter army.
May – The New Model Army is decimated at the Siege of Clonmel.
June 9 – The Harvard Corporation, the more powerful of the two administrative boards of Harvard, is established (the first legal corporation in the Americas).
June 23 – Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland (at Garmouth), the only one of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler.
August 23 – Colonel George Monck forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, forerunner of the Coldstream Guards.
September 3 – Third English Civil War: Battle of Dunbar (1650).
September 27 – The Kolumbo volcano on Santorini experiences a massive eruption (VEI 6).
September 29 – Henry Robinson opens his Office of Addresses and Encounters in Threadneedle Street, London.
November 4 – William III of Orange becomes Prince of the House of Orange the moment of his birth, succeeding his father who had died a few days earlier. He doesn't become stadtholder, so the United Provinces becomes a true republic.
December 25 – Thomas Cooper, former Usher of Gresham's School, England, is hanged as a Royalist rebel.
The first modern Palio horserace is held in Siena.
Puritans chop down the original Glastonbury Thorn.
Captain James Hind makes an abortive attempt to seize power in England.
Jews are allowed to return to France and England.
Cafés begin to become popular in Europe.
Three-wheeled wheelchairs are invented in Nuremberg by watchmaker Stephan Farffler.
Ann Greene, who had been hanged for infanticide in Oxford wakes up on an autopsy table; she is pardoned.
Ethiopia deports Portuguese diplomats and missionaries.
Einkommende Zeitungen becomes the first German newspaper (cancelled 1918).
The town of Sharon, Massachusetts is founded.
Estimation: Istanbul becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Beijing.
Jan Antonín Losy, Czech lutist (d. 1721) is born.
Date Unknown – Thomas Savery, English engineer and inventor (d. 1715)
January 1 – George Rooke, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1709)
January 10 – Countess Sophie Amalie of Nassau-Siegen, Duchess consort of Courland (1682-1688) (d. 1688)
February 2 – Nell Gwyn, English actress and royal mistress (d. 1687)
February 5 – Anne-Jules, 2nd duc de Noailles, French general (d. 1708)
February 26 – Tomás Marín de Poveda, 1st Marquis of Cañada Hermosa, Royal Governor of Chile (d. 1703)
February 27 – Jan Verkolje, Dutch painter (d. 1693)
March 6 – John Conyers (MP born 1650), English politician (d. 1725)
March 24 – Sir Jonathan Trelawny, 3rd Baronet, British bishop (d. 1721)
Sir Richard Cox, 1st Baronet (d. 1733)
Ernest, Count of Stolberg-Ilsenburg, German nobleman (d. 1710)
April 10 – Sebastiano Antonio Tanara, Catholic cardinal (d. 1724)
April 15 – Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1681)
April 18 – Sir Edward Dering, 3rd Baronet, English politician (d. 1689)
Felice Boselli, Italian painter (d. 1732)
William Bedloe, English fraudster and informer (d. 1680)
April 27 – Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel, Queen Consort of Denmark (1670-1699) (d. 1714)
May 19 – Cornelis HrR Ridder de Graeff, Dutch nobleman and chief landholder of the Zijpe and Haze Polder (d. 1678)
May 26 – John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, English general (d. 1722)
June 5 – Ogasawara Nagashige, Daimyo (d. 1732)
June 14 – Carlo Alessandro Guidi (d. 1712)
June 25 – Joseph Sherman (Massachusetts Bay Colony), American politician (d. 1731)
July 1 – Maria Anna Vasa, Polish princess (d. 1651)
July 6 – Frederick Casimir Kettler (d. 1698)
July 25 – William Burkitt, biblical expositor and vicar in Dedham (d. 1703)
July 30 – Edward Lewis (Devizes MP), English politician (d. 1674)
August 7 – Louis Joseph, Duke of Guise (d. 1671)
August 16 – Vincenzo Coronelli, Franciscan monk, Italian cartographer, encyclopedist (d. 1718)
August 17 – Jean Gaston, Duke of Valois (d. 1652)
August 27 – Carl Philipp, Reichsgraf von Wylich und Lottum, Prussian field Marshal (d. 1719)
August 30 – Ludovico Sabbatini, Italian priest (d. 1724)
September 7 – Juan Manuel María de la Aurora, 8th duke of Escalona, Spanish aristocrat (d. 1725)
September 14 – Theophilus Oglethorpe, English soldier and MP (d. 1702)
September 20 – Adrian Beverland, Dutch philosopher and jurist who settled in England (d. 1716)
September 23 – Jeremy Collier, English theatre critic, non-juror bishop and theologian (d. 1726)
October 9 – René Auguste Constantin de Renneville, French writer (d. 1723)
Jane Rolfe, Granddaughter of Pocahontas (d. 1676)
Ulisse Giuseppe Gozzadini, Catholic cardinal (d. 1728)
October 19 – Charles Erskine, Earl of Mar (d. 1689)
October 20 – Robert Shirley, 1st Earl Ferrers, English peer and courtier (d. 1717)
October 24 – Steven Blankaart, Dutch entomologist (d. 1704)
November 4 – King William III of England, Scotland, and Ireland (d. 1702)
November 7 – John Robinson, English diplomat (d. 1723)
November 14 – William III of England, Prince of Orange, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (d. 1702)
November 17 – Joanna Koerten, Dutch painter (d. 1715)
November 18 – Robert Walpole (1650–1700), English politician (d. 1700)
November 19 – Henry, Duke of Saxe-Römhild, duke of Saxe-Römhild (d. 1710)
November 23 – Joseph Oriol (d. 1702)
November 28 – Jan Palfijn, Flemish surgeon and obstetrician (d. 1730)
November 30 – Domenico Martinelli, Italian architect (d. 1718)
December 3 – August of Saxe-Weissenfels (1650–1674), Prince of Saxe-Weissenfels and provost of Magdeburg (d. 1674)
December 6 – Johann Friedrich Mayer (theologian), German Lutheran theologian (d. 1712)
December 10 – Theophilus Hastings, 7th Earl of Huntingdon (d. 1701)
Alexander Hermann, Count of Wartensleben, Prussian field marshal (d. 1734)
Sir Robert Marsham, 4th Baronet, English politician (d. 1703)
December 17 – Christoph Arnold, German astronomer (d. 1695)
December 25 – Claude Aveneau, French missionary (d. 1711)
February 11 – René Descartes, French philosopher (b. 1596)
April 18 – Simonds d'Ewes, English antiquarian and politician (b. 1602)
April 21 – Yagyū Jūbei Mitsuyoshi, Japanese samurai (b. 1607)
May 21 – James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, Scottish royalist (b. 1612)
June 18 – Christoph Scheiner, German astronomer (b. 1573 or 1575)
June 19 – Matthäus Merian, Swiss engraver (b. 1593)
August – John Parkinson, English herbalist and botanist (b. 1567)
August 25 – Richard Crashaw, English poet (b. c. 1613)
October 29 – David Calderwood, Scottish historian (b. 1575)
November 6 – William II, Prince of Orange (b. 1626)
November 24 – Manuel Cardoso, Portuguese composer (b. 1566)
December 31 – Dorgon, Manchu prince (b. 1612)
date unknown – Catalina de Erauso, Spanish-Mexican nun and soldier (b. 1592)
Koçi Bey, Ottoman man of letters
Magdalena Andersdotter, Norwegian-Faroese shipowner (b. 1590)
Teofila Chmielecka Polish military wife (b. 1590)
1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1650th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 650th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1650, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.