|Covid-19|January 20 – Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other "high crimes".
January 27 – King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is found guilty of high treason in a public session. He is beheaded three days later, outside the Banqueting Hall in the Palace of Whitehall, London.
Following the execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England, a republican form of government, replaces the monarchy as the form of government of England and later of Scotland and Ireland. Members of the Long Parliament serve as government.
Charles, Prince of Wales declares himself King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. At the time, none of the three kingdoms recognize him as ruler.
February 5 – In Edinburgh, Scotland claimant King Charles II of England is declared King in his absence. Scotland is the first of the three Kingdoms to recognize his claim to the throne.
March 11 – The rebel Frondeurs and the French government sign the Peace of Rueil.
March 19 – The House of Commons of England passes an act abolishing the House of Lords, declaring that it is "useless and dangerous to the people of England".
March – Robert Blake is promoted to become a "General at Sea" of the English fleet.
May 17 – The Banbury mutiny in England ends – leaders of the Leveller mutineers in the New Model Army are hanged.
May 19 – An act declaring England to be a Commonwealth is passed by the Rump Parliament.
May 22–October – Robert Blake blockades Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Ireland.
August – The Diggers abandon their last major colony at St. George's Hill, Weybridge, England.
August 8 – Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh completes Book VIII of Leabhar na nGenealach, in Galway, within days of an outbreak of the plague.
August 15 – Oliver Cromwell lands in Dublin to begin the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
September 2 – The Italian city of Castro is completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro.
September 3–11 – Siege of Drogheda in Ireland: New Model Army massacre the Irish Catholic Confederation garrison.
October 2–11 – Sack of Wexford in Ireland: New Model Army massacre the Irish Catholic Confederation garrison.
Urga is founded (now Mongolia's capital).
Dutch artist Frans Hals paints a portrait of René Descartes (19 × 14 cm), currently in the National Gallery of Denmark.
January 12 – Jacques Carrey, French painter (d. 1726)
William Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (1679–1691) (d. 1691)
John Waddon, English politician (d. 1695)
January 22 – Pascal Collasse, French composer (d. 1709)
January 30 – Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Earl of Dysart, British politician and nobleman (d. 1727)
John Benedict, Connecticut politician and deacon (d. 1729)
Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp, Consort of Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (d. 1728)
February 8 – Gabriel Daniel, French Jesuit historian (d. 1728)
February 11 – William Carstares, Scottish minister (d. 1715)
February 16 – Antonio Lupis, prolific Italian writer (d. 1701)
February 19 – Daniel Erich, German organist and composer (d. 1712)
February 22 – Bon Boullogne, French painter (d. 1717)
February 25 – Johann Philipp Krieger, German Baroque composer (d. 1725)
March 2 – Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, German politician (d. 1726)
March 3 – John Floyer, English physician and author (d. 1734)
March 12 – Govert Bidloo, Dutch physician, anatomist, poet and playwright (d. 1713)
March 13 – Simon Henry, Count of Lippe-Detmold (1666–1697) (d. 1697)
March 19 – Marie Morin, nun and historian in New France (d. 1730)
March 30 – John Trenchard, politician (d. 1695)
April 5 – Elihu Yale, American benefactor of Yale University (d. 1721)
April 8 – Charles Berkeley, 2nd Earl of Berkeley, English diplomat (d. 1710)
April 9 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland (d. 1685)
April 11 – Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark, daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark (d. 1704)
April 16 – Jan Luyken, Dutch engraver (d. 1712)
April 17 – Charles Henri, Prince of Commercy (d. 1723)
April 23 – Andreas Kneller, German organist and composer (d. 1724)
May 2 – Engel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (d. 1683)
May 3 – Johann Valentin Meder, German composer (d. 1719)
Chhatrasal, Maharaja of Madhya Pradesh (d. 1731)
Augustinus Terwesten, 18th century painter from the Northern Netherlands (d. 1711)
May 15 – Vincent Bigot, Superior general of the Jesuit mission in Canada (d. 1720)
June 13 – Adrien Baillet, French scholar and critic (d. 1706)
July 1 – Johann Wilhelm Petersen, German theologian (d. 1727)
Sophie Amalie Lindenov, Danish noblewoman and landowner (d. 1688)
William Lodge, English engraver and printmaker (d. 1689)
July 19 – Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Wanfried (1676–1711) (d. 1711)
July 20 – William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland (d. 1709)
July 23 – Pope Clement XI (d. 1721)
August 3 – Diego de Salinas, Governor of Gibraltar (d. 1720)
August 7 – Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1664)
August 16 – Barent van Kalraet, Dutch painter (d. 1737)
August 27 – Ferdinando d'Adda (d. 1719)
September 6 – Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, mistress of Charles II of England (d. 1734)
September 7 – Charles Lambart, 3rd Earl of Cavan, Irish Earl (d. 1702)
September 10 – Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1675–1706) (d. 1706)
Sir Thomas Blount, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1687)
Giuseppe Maria Tomasi, Sicilian saint (d. 1713)
September 14 – Magdalena Stenbock, Swedish salon hostess (d. 1727)
September 15 – Titus Oates, English clergyman and plotter (d. 1705)
September 20 – Carr Scrope, English poet (d. 1680)
September 25 – Edward Montagu, British politician (d. 1690)
September 26 – Katharyne Lescailje, Dutch writer (d. 1711)
September 27 – Jonas Danilssønn Ramus, Norwegian priest and historian (d. 1718)
October 3 – Franz Mozart, mason, great-grandfather of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d. 1693)
October 6 – Juana Rangel de Cuéllar, Founder of Colombian city (d. 1736)
October 12 – Sir Thomas Felton, 4th Baronet, English politician (d. 1709)
October 19 – Samuel Rodigast, Poet and hymnwriter (d. 1708)
October 25 – Sir Edward Blackett, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1718)
Johann Adolf I, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, German duke (d. 1697)
Esmé Stewart, 2nd Duke of Richmond, son of James Stewart (d. 1660)
November 4 – Samuel Carpenter, Samuel Carpenter, immigrant (d. 1714)
November 24 – John Holwell, mathematician and astrologer (d. 1680)
December 2 – Jean-Baptiste Corneille, French historical painter, etcher, and engraver (d. 1695)
December 9 – Sir Orlando Bridgeman, 1st Baronet, of Ridley (d. 1701)
date unknown – Dionysius Andreas Freher, German mystic (d. 1728)
Esther Liebmann, German banker (d. 1714)
January 30 – King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland (executed) (b. 1600)
March 9 – James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, Scottish statesman (b. 1606)
March 9 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (executed) (b. 1590)
March 16 – Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1593)
March 19 – Gerhard Johann Vossius, German classical scholar and theologian (b. 1577)
March 22 – Agostinho Barbosa, Portuguese bishop in Italy and writer on canon law (d. 1589).
March 26 – John Winthrop First Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony (b. c. 1587)
May 14 – Friedrich Spanheim, Dutch theologian (b. 1600)
June 3 – Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Portuguese historian and poet (b. 1590)
September 6 – Robert Dudley, styled Earl of Warwick, English explorer and geographer (b. 1574)
September 15 – John Floyd, English Jesuit preacher (b. 1572)
October 3 – Giovanni Diodati, Swiss Protestant clergyman (b. 1576)
October 28 – Lady Blanche Arundell, defender of Wardour Castle (b. 1583)
October 16 – Isaac van Ostade, Dutch painter (b. 1621)
November 19 – Caspar Schoppe, German scholar (b. 1576)
December 4 – William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet (b. 1585)
December 7 – Charles Garnier, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1606)
December 8 – Noël Chabanel, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1613)
1649 (MDCXLIX) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1649th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 649th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1649, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.