|Covid-19|January–March – Archangelsk is founded as New Kholmogory in northern Russia by Ivan the Terrible.
January 11 – Sir Walter Mildmay is given a royal licence to found Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
March 18 (N.S. March 28) – Death of Ivan the Terrible, ruler of Russia since 1533. He is succeeded as Tsar by his son Feodor.
May 17 – The conflict between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu culminates in the Battle of Nagakute.
June 1 – With the death of the Duc d'Anjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France.
June 4 – Walter Ralegh sends Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Outer Banks of Virginia (now North Carolina), with a view to establishing an English colony; they locate Roanoke Island.
June 11 – Walk (modern-day Valka and Valga, towns in Latvia and Estonia respectively) receives city rights from Polish king Stefan Bathory.
July 5 – The Maronite College is established in Rome, Papal States.
July 10 – William I of Orange is assassinated.
September 17 – Ghent falls into the hands of Alexander Farnese, governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
December – The Treaty of Joinville is signed secretly between the French Catholic League and Spain.
Ratu Hijau becomes queen regnant of the once Malay Pattani Kingdom.
The Belgian cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius features Ming Dynasty-era Chinese carriages with masts and sails in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; concurrent and later Western writers also take note of this peculiar Chinese invention.
This year, according to Italian heretic Jacopo Brocardo, is regarded as an apocalyptic inauguration of a major new cycle.
January 1 – Charles de Lorme, French physician (d. 1678)
January 7 – Karan Singh II, Maharana of Mewar (d. 1628)
January 29 – Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (d. 1647)
February 9 – Francesco Maria Richini, Italian architect (d. 1658)
February 12 – Caspar Barlaeus, Dutch polymath (d. 1648)
February 18 – Philippe de Carteret II, son of Philippe de Carteret I (1552– (d. 1643)
February 19 – Angelo Nardi, Italian painter (d. 1664)
February 26 – Albert VI of Bavaria (d. 1666)
March 15 – Philip, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (d. 1663)
March 22 – Grégoire de Saint-Vincent, Flemish Jesuit and mathematician (d. 1667)
March 26 – John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1635)
March 29 – Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, English parliamentary general (d. 1648)
April 6 – Bridget de Vere, Countess of Berkshire, English countess (d. 1630)
April 10 – Sibylle Elisabeth of Württemberg, German Princess, by marriage Duchess of Saxony (d. 1606)
April 20 – Sir John Langham, 1st Baronet, Member of Parliament of England (d. 1671)
April 23 – Jorge de Cárdenas y Manrique de Lara, Spanish noble (d. 1644)
April 29 – Melchior Teschner, German cantor, composer and theologian (d. 1635)
May 17 – John Jacob Hess, Swiss minister (d. 1639)
May 23 – Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, Austrian diplomat (d. 1650)
May 27 – Michael Altenburg, German composer (d. 1640)
June 6 – Yuan Chonghuan (d. 1630)
June 15 – Anna Sophie of Anhalt, German noblewoman (d. 1652)
June 16 – Archduchess Maria of Austria (d. 1649)
June 25 – Richard Strode, English politician (d. 1669)
June 26 – Robert Cholmondeley, 1st Earl of Leinster, English politician (d. 1659)
July 17 – Agnes of Brandenburg, Duchess of Pomerania, later Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1629)
July 26 – Gaspard III de Coligny, Marshal of France (d. 1646)
August 1 – Emanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland, English Earl (d. 1630)
August 10 – John Casimir, Count of Erbach-Breuberg (1606–1627) (d. 1627)
August 11 – Philip Ernest, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1610–1628) (d. 1628)
August 13 – Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, English politician (d. 1640)
August 28 – Richard Treat, American city founder (d. 1669)
August 29 – Patrick Young, Scottish librarian (d. 1652)
September 11 – Thomas van Erpe (d. 1624)
September 13 – Francis Julius of Saxe-Lauenburg, Prince (d. 1634)
September 15 – Georg Rudolf Weckherlin, German poet (d. 1653)
September 16 – Giulio Roma, Catholic cardinal (d. 1652)
September 17 – John Finch, 1st Baron Finch, English judge (d. 1660)
October 10 – Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke (d. 1649)
November 3 – Jean-Pierre Camus, French bishop (d. 1652)
November 10 – Catherine of Sweden, Countess Palatine of Kleeburg (d. 1638)
November 16 – Barbara Sophie of Brandenburg, Duches consort and later regent of Württemberg (d. 1636)
December 15 – Queen Inmok, Korean royal consort (d. 1632)
December 16 – John Selden, English jurist (d. 1654)
December 25 – Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain (d. 1611)
December 27 – Philipp Julius, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1625)
December 28 – Juan de Dicastillo, Spanish theologian (d. 1653)
William Baffin, English explorer (d. 1622)
Francis Beaumont, English dramatist (d. 1616)
Antonio Cifra, Italian composer (d. 1629)
Matthias Gallas, Austrian soldier (d. 1647)
Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese samurai, artist, philosopher (d. 1645)
John Hales, English theologian (d. 1656)
Hu Zhengyan, Chinese artist, printmaker, calligrapher and publisher (d. 1674)
Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull (d. 1643)
Mathieu Molé, French statesman (d. 1656)
Herman Wrangel, Swedish soldier and politician (d. 1643)
January 4 – Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter and drawer (b. 1539)
January 15 – Martha Leijonhufvud, politically active Swedish noble (b. 1520)
March 10 – Thomas Norton, English politician and writer (b. 1532)
March 18 – Tsar Ivan IV of Russia (b. 1530)
Ikeda Motosuke, Japanese military commander (b. 1559) (in battle)
Ikeda Tsuneoki, Japanese daimyo and military commander (in battle) (b. 1536)
June 19 – François, Duke of Anjou (b. 1555)
July – Francis Throckmorton, conspirator against Queen Elizabeth I of England (b. 1554)
July 10 – William I of Orange (assassinated) (b. 1533)
July 12 – Steven Borough, English explorer (b. 1525)
July 13 – Balthasar Gérard, French assassin of William I of Orange (b. 1557)
July 23 – John Day, English Protestant printer (b. 1522)
August 22 – Jan Kochanowski, Polish writer (b. 1530)
October – Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll, Scottish nobleman and politician (b. 1541)
October 29 – Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, Turkish grand vizier
November 4 – Saint Charles Borromeo, Italian cardinal (b. 1538)
Jan Borukowski, royal secretary of Poland (b. 1524)
Yi I of Joseon, Korean Confucian scholar (b. 1536)
Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (b. 1512)
Carolus Sigonius, Italian humanist (b. 1524)
Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa, viceroy of Peru (b. 1515)
Michal Wisniowiecki, prince at Wiśniowiec (b. 1529)
probable – James Balfour of Pittendreich, Scottish judge and politician
1584 (MDLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (dominical letter AG) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Julian calendar, the 1584th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 584th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 16th century, and the 5th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1584, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.