January 21 – Queen Elizabeth I of England grants a monopoly on producing printed sheet music to Thomas Tallis and William Byrd.
February 8 – William I of Orange founds Leiden University.
February 13 – Henry III of France is crowned at Reims.
February 14 – Henry III of France marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont.
June 24 – William I of Orange marries Charlotte of Bourbon.
June 28 – Battle of Nagashino: Oda Nobunaga defeats Takeda Katsuyori in Japan's first 'modern' battle.
July 7 – Raid of the Redeswire: Sir John Carmichael defeats Sir John Forster. Last battle between England and Scotland.
July 26 – Edmund Grindal succeeds Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury.
August 5 – Henry Sidney is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
October 10 – Battle of Dormans: Catholic forces under Henry I, Duke of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others.
October 22 – City of "Villa de la Asunsion" (today Aguascalientes (Aguascalientes) is founded in New Spain by permission from Philip II of Spain.
December 15 – Stephen Báthory becomes king of Poland.
December 16 – An Valdivia earthquake hits Valdivia.
Russians occupy Pernau in Western Estonia and the fortress of Weissenstein.
Portugal founds the city of Luanda, Angola.
Seat of the Audiencia Real in Chile moves from Concepción to Santiago.
Abraham Ortelius becomes geographer to Philip II of Spain.
The bubonic plague decimates Venice.
Gaspar da Cruz, a Portuguese Dominican friar, writes about his travels to the Ming Dynasty of China, including the Chinese civil service handbook The Bureaucratic System of the Ming Dynasty, and how the Chinese draw lots to determine which days of the year are most auspicious or most ill-fated to travel upon.
Captains of vessels flying the Spanish flag are legally required to maintain a logbook.
January 22 – Louis III, Cardinal of Guise (d. 1621)
January – Elizabeth Cecil, 16th Baroness de Ros (d. 1591)
February 4 – Pierre de Bérulle, French cardinal and statesman (d. 1629)
February 15 – Louis Gunther of Nassau, Count of Nassau-Katzenelnbogen (d. 1604)
February 16 – Richard Carpenter, English priest and theologian (d. 1625)
February 21 – Marten Pepijn, painter (d. 1643)
February 25 – Bernard of Wąbrzeźno, Roman Catholic priest and Benedictine monk (d. 1603)
John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1590–1616) (d. 1616)
Anna of Holstein-Gottorp, Wife of Enno III of Ostfriesland (d. 1610)
March 5 – William Oughtred, English mathematician (d. 1660)
April 18 – Frederick Magnus, Count of Erbach-Fürstenau (1606–1618) (d. 1618)
April 21 – Francesco Molin, Doge of Venice (d. 1655)
May 20 – Robert Heath, English judge and politician (d. 1649)
May 30 – Diego Salcedo, Spanish bishop (d. 1644)
June 15 – Lelio Biscia, Italian cardinal (d. 1638)
June 24 – William Petre, 2nd Baron Petre, English peer and MP (d. 1637)
June 26 – Anne Catherine of Brandenburg (d. 1612)
July 2 – Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of Derby, British businessman (d. 1627)
July 11 – Thomas Berkeley, English politician (d. 1611)
July 14 – Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau, German prince (d. 1653)
July 28 – Fernando de Valdés y Llanos, Roman Catholic archbishop (d. 1639)
July 31 – Simon Steward, English politician (d. 1632)
August 14 – Robert Hayman, English-born poet (d. 1629)
August 15 – Diego, Prince of Asturias, Portuguese prince (d. 1582)
August 18 – Countess Palatine Anna Maria of Neuburg, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (d. 1643)
August 24 – William Burton, British antiquarian (d. 1645)
November 4 – Guido Reni, Italian painter (d. 1642)
November 26 – John Augustus, Count Palatine of Lützelstein, German count (d. 1611)
December 4 – The Nun of Monza, Italian nun (d. 1650)
December 18 – Michelagnolo Galilei, Italian lutenist and composer (d. 1631)
Jakob Böhme, German mystic (d. 1624)
David Calderwood, Scottish divine and historian (d. 1650)
Concino Concini, 3rd Prime Minister of France (d. 1617)
Anna Kostka, Polish noblewoman (d. 1635)
Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, successful London merchant (d. 1645)
William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle (d. 1622)
Arbella Stuart, Duchess of Somerset (d. 1615)
Cyril Tourneur, English dramatist (d. 1626)
Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell (d. 1608)
Giambattista Basile, Italian poet (d. 1632)
Edmund Bolton, English historian and poet (d. 1633)
Vittoria Aleotti, Italian composer (d. c.1620)
January 14 – Barbara Uthmann, German businessperson (b. 1514)
January 22 – James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault (b. 1516)
February 21 – Claude of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France (b. 1547)
March 11 – Matthias Flacius, Croatian Protestant reformer (b. 1520)
March 15 – Annibale Padovano, Italian composer and organist (b. 1527)
March 24 – Yosef Karo, Spanish-born rabbi (b. 1488)
May 17 – Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1504)
June 3 – Francisco de Ibarra, Spanish explorer and colonial governor in Mexico (b. c. 1539)
June 7 – Sir George Heron, keeper of Redesdale, Sir John Forster's lieutenant, who was killed in the Raid of the Redeswire.
June 28 – Baba Nobufusa, Hara Masatane, Naito Masatoyo, Sanada Nobutsuna, Takeda Nobuzane, Yamagata Masakage, Yonekura Shigetsugu, all in Battle of Nagashino
July 14 – Richard Taverner, English Bible translator (b. 1505)
September 17 – Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious reformer (b. 1504)
October 17 – Gaspar Cervantes de Gaeta, Spanish cardinal (b. 1511)
December 23 – Akiyama Nobutomo, Japanese retainer (b. 1531)
December 31 – Pierino Belli, Italian soldier and jurist (b. 1502)
Constantio Varoli, Italian anatomist (b. 1543)
Isabel de Josa, Catalan writer (b. 1508)
Limahong, Chinese pirate
The conclusion of the events of the film Kagemusha by Akira Kurosawa takes place in this year.
Year 1575 (MDLXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.