January 25 – Coronation of Francis I of France (r. until 1547).
May 13 – Mary Tudor, Queen of France, and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, are officially married at Greenwich (near London).
c. June? – Major landslide and flood near Bellinzona.
July 2 – Manchester Grammar School is endowed by Hugh Oldham, the first free grammar school in England.
July 22 – At the First Congress of Vienna, a double wedding takes place to cement agreements. Louis, only son of King Vladislaus II of Hungary, marries Mary of Austria, granddaughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor; and Mary's brother, Archduke Ferdinand, marries Vladislaus' daughter, Anna.
August 25 – Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founds Havana, Cuba.
September 13–14 – Battle of Marignano: The army of Francis I of France defeats the Swiss, thanks to the timely arrival of a Venetian army. Francis restores French control of Milan.
November 15 – Thomas Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal.
December 24 – Thomas Wolsey is named Lord Chancellor of England.
Ottoman sultan Selim I kills Dulkadirid ruler Alaüddevle, challenging the Mameluk sultan of Egypt al-Ghawri.
The Yadigarid Uzbeks found the Khanate of Khiva.
Bartolomé de las Casas urges Ferdinand II of Aragon to end Amerindian slavery and recommends experimental free towns.
Dürer's Rhinoceros cut.
Henry Cornelius Agrippa returns to Northern Italy.
January 1 – Johann Weyer, Dutch physician (d. 1588)
January 4 – Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (d. 1565)
February 14 – Frederick III, Elector Palatine, ruler from the house of Wittelsbach (d. 1576)
February 18 – Valerius Cordus, German physician, botanist and author (d. 1544)
March 10 – Injong of Joseon, 12th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (d. 1545)
March 12 – Caspar Othmayr, German Protestant priest, theologian and composer (d. 1553)
March 28 – Teresa of Ávila, Spanish Carmelite nun, poet and saint (d. 1582)
May 2 – Sibylle of Saxony, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1592)
Christoph, Duke of Württemberg (1550–1568) (d. 1568)
Gilbert Kennedy, 3rd Earl of Cassilis, Scottish politician and judge (d. 1558)
Anne Herbert, Countess of Pembroke, English countess (d. 1552)
Anne Parr, Countess of Pembroke, English countess (d. 1552)
July 4 – Eleonora d'Este (d. 1575)
July 10 – Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of Peru (d. 1582)
July 14 – Philip I, Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast (d. 1560)
July 21 – Philip Neri, Italian Roman Catholic saint (d. 1595)
September 8 – Alfonso Salmeron, Spanish biblical scholar and early Jesuit (d. 1585)
September 22 – Anne of Cleves, Fourth Queen of Henry VIII of England (d. 1557)
October 4 – Lucas Cranach the Younger, German painter (d. 1586)
Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, 6th son of King Manuel I of Portugal (d. 1540)
Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães, Portuguese infante (prince) (d. 1540)
October 8 – Margaret Douglas, daughter of Archibald Douglas (d. 1578)
October 15 – Leone Strozzi, French Navy admiral (d. 1554)
Vincenzo Borghini, Italian monk (d. 1580)
Mary of Bourbon, daughter of Charles (d. 1538)
November 22 – Mary of Guise, queen of James V of Scotland and regent of Scotland (d. 1560)
December 15 – Maria of Saxony, Duchess of Pomerania (d. 1583)
Gilbert Kennedy, 3rd Earl of Cassilis, Scottish peer (d. 1558)
Sebastian Castellio, rector of the College of Geneva (d. 1563)
Cristóbal Acosta, Portuguese doctor and natural historian (d. 1580)
Injong of Joseon, 12th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (d. 1545)
Pierre de la Ramée, French humanist scholar (d. 1572)
Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests for Elizabeth I of England (d. 1587)
Thomas Watson, Catholic bishop (d. 1584)
Leonard Digges, English mathematician and surveyor (d. c. 1559)
Jean Maillard, French composer
Laurence Nowell, English antiquarian (d. 1571)
Cipriano de Rore, Flemish composer and teacher (d. 1565)
Nicholas Throckmorton, English churchman, last abbot of Westminster (d. 1571)
John Willock, Scottish reformer (d. 1585)
January 1 – King Louis XII of France (b. 1462)
January 15 – Diebold Schilling the Younger, Swiss chronicler
February 6 – Aldus Manutius, Venetian printer (b. c. 1449)
April 15 – Mikołaj Kamieniecki, Polish nobleman (szlachcic) and first Great Hetman of the Crown (b. 1460)
September 9 – Joseph Volotsky, prominent caesaropapist ideologist of the Russian Orthodox Church, who led the party defending monastic landownership
October – Bartolomeo d'Alviano, Venetian general (b. 1455)
November 5 – Mariotto Albertinelli, Italian painter (b. 1474)
December 2 – Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Spanish general and statesman (b. 1453)
December 16 – Afonso de Albuquerque, Portuguese naval general (b. 1453)
Giovanni Giocondo, Italian friar, architect and classical scholar (b. c. 1433 in Verona)
Eoghan Mac Cathmhaoil, Irish Bishop of Clogher since 1505
Meñli I Giray, khan of the Crimean Khanate (b. 1445)
Pietro Lombardo, Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect (b. 1435 in Carona (Ticino))
Nezahualpilli, Aztec philosopher (b. 1464)
Alonso de Ojeda, Spanish conquistador (b. 1466)
probable – Vincenzo Foppa, Italian Renaissance painter (b. 1430)
Quilago, queen regnant of the Cochasquí in Ecuador (b. 1490)
Year 1515 (MDXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.