|Covid-19|February 3 – Battle of Diu: The Portuguese defeat a coalition of Indians, Muslims and Italians.
April 21 – Henry VIII becomes King of England (for 38 years) on the death of his father, Henry VII.
April 27 – Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.
May 14 – Battle of Agnadello: French forces defeat the Venetians.
Henry VIII of England marries Catherine of Aragon.
Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione, concerning the golden ratio, is published in Venice, with illustrations by Leonardo da Vinci.
June 19 – Brasenose College, Oxford is founded by a lawyer, Sir Richard Sutton, of Prestbury, Cheshire, and the Bishop of Lincoln, William Smyth.
June 24 – King Henry VIII of England and Queen Consort Catherine of Aragon are crowned.
July 26 – Krishnadevaraya ascends the throne of the Vijayanagara Empire.
September 10 – Constantinople earthquake destroys 109 mosques and kills an estimated 10,000 people.
September 11 – Portuguese fidalgo Diogo Lopes de Sequeira becomes the first European to reach Malacca, having crossed the Gulf of Bengal.
Erasmus writes his most famous work, In Praise of Folly.
The Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy is founded.
Royal Grammar School, Guildford, is founded by Robert Beckingham.
St Paul's School is founded by John Colet, Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, London.
Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Blackburn, is founded as a grammar school for boys.
Afonso de Albuquerque becomes the governor of the portuguese settlements in India.
Earliest known pocket watch made at Nuremberg, Germany by Peter Henlein.
January 1 – Guillaume Le Testu, French privateer (d. 1573)
January 2 – Henry of Stolberg, German nobleman (d. 1572)
January 3 – Gian Girolamo Albani, Italian cardinal (d. 1591)
January 25 – Giovanni Morone, Catholic cardinal (d. 1580)
February 2 – John of Leiden, Dutch Anabaptist leader (d. 1536)
February 10 – Vidus Vidius, Italian surgeon and anatomist (d. 1569)
March 27 – Wolrad II, Count of Waldeck (1539–1575) (d. 1575)
April 23 – Afonso of Portugal, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1540)
July 4 – Magnus III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Lutheran bishop of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin (d. 1550)
July 10 – John Calvin, French religious reformer (d. 1564)
July 25 – Philip II, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken, German noble (d. 1554)
August 3 – Étienne Dolet, French scholar and printer (d. 1546)
August 7 – Joachim I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, German prince (d. 1561)
August 25 – Ippolito II d'Este, Catholic cardinal (d. 1572)
October 20 – Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, Scottish prince (d. 1510)
November 4 – John, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels and Count of Glatz (d. 1565)
John Erskine of Dun, Scottish religious reformer (d. 1591)
Stanisław Odrowąż, Polish noble (d. 1545)
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, Spanish conquistador (d. 1579)
Bernardino Telesio, Italian philosopher and natural scientist (d. 1588)
Kamran Mirza, Mughal prince (d. 1557)
January – Adam Kraft, sculptor and architect
March 14 – Giovanni Antonio Sangiorgio, Italian cardinal
April 21 – King Henry VII of England (b. 1457)
May 28 – Caterina Sforza, countess and regent of Forli (b. 1463)
June 29 – Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII of England (b. 1443)
July 11 – William II, Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1469)
Joao da Nova, Portuguese explorer (b. 1460)
Mikalojus Radvila the Old, Lithuanian nobleman (b. c. 1450)
Hans Seyffer, sculptor and woodcarver (b. c. 1460)
Shen Zhou, Chinese painter (b. 1427)
Eleanor de Poitiers, Burgundian courter and writer
Viranarasimha Raya, ruler of the Vijayanagar empire
Year 1509 (MDIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.