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Kingdom  Fungi
Order  Tremellales
Scientific name  Tremella
Rank  genus
Division  Basidiomycota
Family  Tremellaceae
Higher classification  Tremellaceae
Tremella Tremella mesenterica Witchs Butter MushroomExpertCom

Lower classifications  Tremella fuciformis, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella foliacea, Tremella frondosa

Tremella fuciformis snow mushroom

Tremella is a genus of fungi in the family Tremellaceae. All Tremella species are parasites of other fungi and most produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Over 100 species of Tremella are currently recognized worldwide. Two species, Tremella fuciformis and Tremella aurantialba, are commercially cultivated for food.


Tremella Tremella fuciformis Wikipedia


Tremella California Fungi Tremella foliacea

Tremella was one of the original genera created by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753. The name comes from the Latin tremere meaning "to tremble". Linnaeus placed Tremella in the algae, including within it a variety of gelatinous growths, including seaweeds, cyanobacteria, and myxomycetes, as well as fungi. Subsequent authors added additional species to this mix, until Persoon revised Tremella in 1794 and 1801, repositioning the genus within the fungi.

Tremella httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu

Persoon's reinterpretation of Tremella was sufficiently radical to be considered a separate genus (Tremella Pers.) from that originally created by Linnaeus (Tremella L.). Tremella Pers. has now been conserved under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, with Tremella mesenterica as the type species.

Current status

Tremella Buy White Jelly Mushroom Extract Powder Tremella Fuciformis

Molecular research, based on cladistic analysis of DNA sequences, suggests that Tremella is polyphyletic (and hence artificial), the genus not being clearly separated from other genera within the Tremellaceae. Comparatively few species, however, have yet been sequenced.

More than 500 species have been described in Tremella, but most of these are old names of doubtful application or old names for species later transferred to other genera. Over 100 species are currently accepted within the genus.


Fruit bodies (when present) are gelatinous. In some species they are small (under 5 mm across) and pustular to pulvinate (cushion-shaped). In others they are much larger (up to 150 mm across) and may be variously lobed, cephaliform (like a brain, with folds and ridges), or foliose (with leaf-like or seaweed-like fronds). Many Tremella species, however, are hymenial parasites, producing spores within the fruit bodies of their hosts, and are only visible microscopically.

Microscopic characters

Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal filaments seek out and penetrate the hyphae of the host. The basidia are "tremelloid" (globose to ellipsoid, sometimes stalked, and vertically or diagonally septate), giving rise to long, sinuous sterigmata or epibasidia on which the basidiospores are produced. These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells.

Habitat and distribution

Species are mainly parasitic on wood-rotting fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, particularly on species that occur on dead attached branches. Hosts include members of the corticioid fungi, polypores, and Dacrymycetales in the Basidiomycota and species of Diaporthe, other Sordariomycetes, and lichens in the Ascomycota. Some Tremella species parasitize the fruit bodies of their hosts (sometimes incorporating host hyphae), others parasitize the mycelium within the wood.

As a group, Tremella species occur worldwide, though individual species may have a more restricted distribution.

Species and hosts

The list below includes species that have recently been described or redescribed. Some additional older species may also be valid, but lack a modern description. The type locality (but not the wider distribution) is given for each species together with the host fungus, where known.

  • Tremella anomala — (Brazil) host Hypoxylon spp
  • Tremella arachispora — (Cameroon) host unknown
  • Tremella armeniaca — (Costa Rica) host Xylaria sp?
  • Tremella aurantia — (USA) host Stereum hirsutum
  • Tremella aurantialba — (China) host Stereum hirsutum
  • Tremella australiensis — (Australia) host Stereum spp
  • Tremella brasiliensis — (Brazil) host unknown
  • Tremella callunicola — (Scotland) host Aleurodiscus norvegicus
  • Tremella caloceraticola — (Denmark) host Calocera cornea
  • Tremella caloplacae — (Greece) host Caloplaca spp(as Tremella sp. 1)
  • Tremella candelariellae — (Luxembourg) host Candelariella spp
  • Tremella cephalodiicola — (Papua New Guinea) host Psoroma pannarioides
  • Tremella cerebriformis — (Taiwan) host unknown
  • Tremella cetrariicola — (Scotland) host Cetraria spp
  • Tremella christiansenii — (Denmark) host Physcia spp
  • Tremella cinnabarina — (Tahiti) host unknown
  • Tremella cladoniae — (Germany) host Cladonia spp
  • Tremella coalescens — (USA) host unknown
  • Tremella coccocarpiae — (Philippines) host Coccocarpia rottleri
  • Tremella coffeicolor — (Bermuda) host unknown(as T. auricularia)
  • Tremella colpomaticola — (Denmark) host Colpoma quercinum
  • Tremella compacta — (Brazil) host unknown
  • Tremella coppinsii — (Sarawak) host Platismatia spp
  • Tremella dendrographae — (USA) host Dendrographa minor
  • Tremella dactylobasidia — (Spain) host Dendrothele macrosporae
  • Tremella discicola — (Belgium) host Mollisia and Pyrenopeziza spp
  • Tremella dysenterica — (Brazil) host unknown
  • Tremella encephala — (Europe) host Stereum sanguinolentum
  • Tremella everniae — (China) host Evernia mesomorpha
  • Tremella exigua — (France) host Diaporthe spp
  • Tremella flava — (Taiwan) host Hypoxylon spp
  • Tremella foliacea — (Europe) host Stereum spp
  • Tremella fuciformis — (Brazil) host Annulohypoxylon archeri and other Annulohypoxylon and/or Hypoxylon spp.
  • Tremella fungicola — (Denmark) host Mollisia cinerea
  • Tremella fuscosuccinea — (Taiwan) host unknown
  • Tremella giraffa — (Germany) host Dacrymyces spp
  • Tremella globispora — (England) host Diaporthe spp
  • Tremella graphidastrae — (Papua New Guinea) host Graphidastra multiformis
  • Tremella guttiformis — (Sri Lanka) host unknown
  • Tremella haematommatis — (USA) host Haematomma puniceum
  • Tremella harrisii — (USA) host Polymeridium catapastum
  • Tremella hymenophaga — (Spain) host Scytinostroma odoratum
  • Tremella hypocenomycis — (Finland) host Hypocenomyce spp
  • Tremella hypogymniae — (France) host Hypogymnia spp
  • Tremella indecorata — (Norway) host Diatrype bullata
  • Tremella invasa — (Denmark) host Trechispora spp
  • Tremella karstenii — (Finland) host Colpoma juniperi
  • Tremella leptogii — (Peru) host Leptogium sp.
  • Tremella lethariae — (Canada) host Letharia vulpina
  • Tremella lichenicola — (Luxembourg) host Mycoblastus fucatus
  • Tremella lilacea — (Costa Rica) host Diaporthe sp?
  • Tremella lobariacearum — (Madeira) host Lobariaceae spp
  • Tremella macroceratis — (Norway) host Cladonia macroceras
  • Tremella mesenterella — (Canada) host Peniophora spp
  • Tremella mesenterica — (Sweden) host Peniophora spp
  • Tremella microcarpa — (Papua New Guinea) host lichen sp.
  • Tremella microspora — (South Africa) host Stereum spp
  • Tremella monospora — (Peru) host Leptogium sp.
  • Tremella montis-wilhelmii — (Papua New Guinea) host Normandina simodense sp.
  • Tremella moriformis — (England) host Diaporthe spp
  • Tremella mycetophiloides — (Japan) host Aleurodiscus amorphus and A. grantii
  • Tremella nashii — (USA) host Usnea sorediifera
  • Tremella neofoliacea — (Taiwan) host Stereum sanguinolentum
  • Tremella nephromatis — (Canada) host Nephroma parile
  • Tremella nieblae — (USA) host Niebla cephalota
  • Tremella nigrifacta — (Costa Rica) host Diatrypella sp.
  • Tremella nivalis — (Taiwan) host Diatrype spp
  • Tremella normandinae — (Hawaii) host Normandina pulchella
  • Tremella obscura — (USA) host Dacrymyces spp
  • Tremella occultifuroidea — (Taiwan) host Dacrymyces spp
  • Tremella olens — (Australia) host unknown(as T. fibulifera)
  • Tremella papuana — (Papua New Guinea) host Hypogymnia pseudobitteriana
  • Tremella parmeliarum — (Papua New Guinea) host Parmotrema spp
  • Tremella parmeliellae — (Papua New Guinea) host Parmeliella foliicola
  • Tremella penetrans — (Denmark) host Dacrymyces spp
  • Tremella pertusariae — (Northern Ireland) host Pertusaria spp
  • Tremella phaeographidis — (England) host Phaeographis spp
  • Tremella phaeographinae — (USA) host Phaeographina spp
  • Tremella phaeophysciae — (Denmark) host Phaeophyscia orbicularis
  • Tremella polyporina — (Scotland) host Postia spp
  • Tremella protoparmeliae — (England) host Protoparmelia spp
  • Tremella psoroglaenae — (Papua New Guinea) host Psoroglaena spp
  • Tremella psoromicola — (Chile) host Psoroma spp
  • Tremella ramalinae — (Mexico) host Ramalina spp
  • Tremella roseolutescens — (Costa Rica) host unknown
  • Tremella resupinata — (Taiwan) host Hypoxylon spp
  • Tremella rinodinae — (Denmark) host Rinodina spp
  • Tremella santessonii — (Zimbabwe) host Usnea spp
  • Tremella sarniensis — (Guernsey) host Phanerochaete sordida
  • Tremella silvae-dravedae — (Denmark) host unknown
  • Tremella simplex — (Canada) host Aleurodiscus lividicoeruleus
  • Tremella spicifera — (Belgium) host Massarina arundinacea
  • Tremella steidleri — (Czech Republic) host Stereum hirsutum
  • Tremella stevensiana — (Australia) host Usnea confusa
  • Tremella stictae — (Rwanda) host Sticta weigelii
  • Tremella subencephala — (Canada) host Aleurodiscus amorphus
  • Tremella sulcariae — (China) host Sulcaria sulcata
  • Tremella taiwanensis — (Taiwan) host unknown
  • Tremella tawa — (New Zealand) host unknown
  • Tremella telleriae — (Spain) host Postia spp
  • Tremella translucens — (Scotland) host Lophodermium spp(as Sirotrema translucens)
  • Tremella tremelloides — (USA) host Stereum sp.
  • Tremella tropica — (Taiwan) host unknown
  • Tremella tuckerae — (USA) host Ramalina sinensis
  • Tremella vasifera — (Germany) host unknown
  • Tremella versicolor — (England) host Peniophora spp
  • Tremella vesiculosa — (New Zealand) host Xylaria sp?
  • Tremella wirthii — (Germany) host Protoparmelia sp.
  • Tremella wrightii — (Cuba) host unknown
  • References

    Tremella Wikipedia