| Peoples Republic of China|
Tongjiang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a city of 160,000 in eastern Heilongjiang province, Peoples Republic of China, located at the confluence and on the right banks of the Songhua and Amur Rivers, the latter which marks the border with Russia. Administratively it is a county-level city of Jiamusi.
From 698 to 936, the kingdom of Balhae occupied northern Korea and parts of Manchuria and Primorsky Krai, consisting of the Nanai, the Udege, and the Evenks and descendants of the Tungus-speaking people and the people of the recently fallen Goguryeo kingdom of Korea. The vicinity of Tongjiang was settled at this moment by Heishui Mohe tribes (Hangul : ???? Hanja/Hanzi : ???? pinyin : Heishui Mohe). These tribes were submitted to Balhae Kingdom under King Seons reign (818-830).
King Seon administrated their territories by creating a prefecture in the neighbourhood : The Hoiwon Prefecture (Hangul : ??? Hanja : ???) with Dalju (Hangul : ?? Hanja :??) present-day Tongjiang (Hanzi :?? pinyin :Tongjiang), as its administrative centre.
Harbin is renowned for its culinary tradition. Cuisine of Harbin consist of European flavor dishes and Chinese Northern flavor dishes mainly typified by heavy sauce and deep-frying.
One of the most famous dishes in Northeastern Chinese cuisine is Guo Bao Rou, a form of sweet and sour pork. It is a classic dish from Harbin which originated in the early 20th century in Daotai Fu (pinyin: ). It consists of a bite-sized pieces of pork in a potato starch batter, deep-fried until crispy. They are then lightly coated in a variation of a sweet and sour sauce, made from freshly prepared syrup, rice vinegar, sugar, flavoured with ginger, cilantro, sliced carrot and garlic. The Harbin Guobaorou is distinct from that of other areas of China, such as Liaoning, where the sauce may be made using either tomato ketchup or orange juice. Rather the Harbin style is dominated by the honey and ginger flavours and has a clear or honey yellow colour. Originally the taste was fresh and salty. In order to fete foreign guests, Zheng Xingwen, the chef of Daotai Fu, altered the dish into a sweet and sour taste. Usually, people prefer to go to several small or middle size restaurants to enjoy this dish, because it is difficult to handle the frying process at home.
Demoli Stewed Live Fish is one among other notable dishes in Harbin, which is originated in a village named Demoli on the expressway from Harbin to Jiamusi. The village is now Demoli Service Area on Harbin-Tongjiang Expressway. Stewed Chicken with Mushrooms, Braised Pork with Vermicelli, and quick-boil pork with Chinese sauerkraut are also typical authentic local dishes.
Since Russia had a strong influence of Harbins history, Local cuisine of Harbin also contains Russian style dishes and flavor. There are several authentic Russian-style western restaurants in Harbin, especially alongside the Zhongyang Street.
A popular regional specialty is Harbin-style smoked savory red sausage. This product similar to Lithuanian and German sausages which are very mild, and they tend to be much more of European flavours than other Chinese sausages. In 1900, Russian merchant Ivan Yakovlevich Churin founded a branch in Harbin, which was named Churin Foreign trading company (Chinese pinyin: Qiulin Yanghang; Russian: ) selling imported clothes, leather boots, canned foods, vodka, etc., and began to expand sales network in other cities in Manchuria. The influx of Europeans through Trans-Siberian Railway and Chinese Eastern Railway, increased demand of European flavor food. In 1909, Churins Sausage Factory was founded, and first produced European flavor sausage with the manufacturing process of Lithuanian staff. Since then European style sausage become a specialty of the city.
A Russian style large round bread Dalieba, derived from the Russian word for "bread" is also produced in Harbins bakeries. Dalieba is a miche like sourdough bread. First introduced to the locals by a Russian baker, it has been sold in bakeries in Harbin for over a hundred years. Daliebas sour and chewy taste is different from other traditional soft and fluffy Asian style breads in other parts of China.
Kvass, a Russia-originated fermented beverage made from black or regular rye bread, is also popular in Harbin. Madier (derived from "Modern") ice-cream provided in the Zhongyang Street is also well known in northern China. This ice cream is made from a specific traditional recipe and it tastes a little salty but more sweet and milky. Besides its headquarters in Harbin, it also has branches in other major Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai, etc.