Tonbridge School is an independent day and boarding school for boys in Tonbridge, Kent, England, founded in 1553 by Sir Andrew Judde (sometimes spelled Judd). It is a member of the Eton Group, and has close links with the Worshipful Company of Skinners, one of the oldest London livery companies. It is a public school in the British sense of the term.
There are currently around 800 boys in the school, aged between 13 and 18. The school occupies a site of 150 acres (607,000 m²) on the edge of Tonbridge, and is largely self-contained, though the boarding and day houses are spread through the town. Since its foundation the school has been rebuilt twice on the original site. For the academic year 2015/16, Tonbridge charges full boarders up to £12,096 per term and £9,072 per term for day pupils, making it the 4th and 6th most expensive HMC boarding and day school respectively.
The Headmaster since 2005 is Tim Haynes, previously Headmaster of Monmouth School and Deputy Master at St Paul's School.
The school is one of only a very few of the ancient public schools not to have turned co-educational, and there are no plans for this to happen.
The school was founded in 1553 by Andrew Judde, being granted its Royal Charter by Edward VI. The first headmaster was the Revd. John Proctor, a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. From 1553 until his death in 1558, Judde was the sole governor of the school, and, at some time, he framed the statutes that were to govern it for the next 270 years. On Judde's death, the school was passed to the Skinners' Company, after a dispute with Judde's business partner Henry Fisher.
For the next hundred years few details of the school survive apart from rare records in the Skinners' Company books. Headmaster Proctor died in 1558, and was succeeded by a series of headmasters, usually clergymen and always classical scholars. They included the Revd. William Hatch (1587-1615), the first Old Tonbridgian Headmaster. According to the Skinners' records, the Revd. Michael Jenkins (1615–24) was appointed because 'he was the only one who turned up'. During his time as Headmaster, the school received a series of generous endowments from Thomas Smythe, the first Governor of the East India Company and son of Andrew Judde's daughter Alice.
Very little written material relating to the school over the next century survives. Numbers fluctuated between 40 and 90, and the school obtained a new refectory and a new library. However, from 1680 numbers declined, and for a few years the examiners reported that there were no candidates fit for university study. In 1714, the Reverend Richard Spencer, of King's College, Cambridge, was made Headmaster. He was an immediate success and very popular, and by 1721 numbers had risen to over seventy. The Governors raised Spencer's salary to 30 guineas, and several of his pupils went on to successful careers. These included a future Lord Mayor of London, a vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, and George Austen, father of Jane Austen.
The first Old Tonbridgian dinner was held on 8 June 1744. The year before this, however, Spencer had resigned, and the Headmastership was bestowed upon the Reverend James Cawthorn. Cawthorn persuaded the Governors to build a new library at the south end of the school in 1760, and it survives today as the Headmaster's house and the Skinners' Library. In 1765, the townspeople of Tonbridge asked the question of free education, and Governors' legal team decided that the parishioners' children, provided they could write competently and read Latin and English perfectly, had the right to learn at the school paying only the sixpence entry fee. In 1772, distinguished classical scholar Vicesimus Knox was made Headmaster, but he reigned for a mere six years. During his tenure, numbers dropped to only seventeen. His son and namesake, Vicesimus Knox, was to take his father's place in 1779. School numbers under the young Knox rose to 85, and pupils began to arrive from all over England and also from abroad.
Knox retired in 1812, and was succeeded by his younger son, Thomas. The period of Knox's Headmastership was one of national economic and political change, but at the school the greatest change was to be the increasing importance of cricket. John Abercrombie was to be come the school's first cricket blue (for Cambridge) in 1839. In 1818, a nationwide commission visited Tonbridge to investigate on behalf of the reforming government. Over the next few years, a new scheme for the school was prepared and approved by the Lord Chancellor. New buildings were agreed upon by the Governors, and a new dining room and dormitories were built. The School also bought the Georgian building on the High Street to the north of the new junior school, and it was renamed Judde House. This was the school's second boarding house, with the original buildings serving to house boys of the larger School House. In 1826, the Governors bought the field which now contains the Head cricket ground, and the patches to the north and south of it, later to be called the Upper and Lower Hundreds. In 1838, Knox took the decision to level the Head, a considerable project, using labour and earth from the new railway workings in the town. The labourers often engaged in fights with the boys, as they were lodged nearby. The Head became the focal point of the school and was regarded as one of the most beautiful cricket grounds in the south of England. Thomas Knox died shortly after the completion of his cricket pitch, in 1834, whilst preparing to preach in the parish church. His death brought to an end the 71-year reign of the Knox family.
Tonbridge lost a great many former pupils in both World Wars. 415 Old Tonbridgians and three masters died in the Great War, and a further 301 OTs died in the line of duty between 1939-1945.Eric Stuart Dougall was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross to go already with his Military Cross in Belgium during the closing stages of World War 1.
James Brindley Nicolson became the only RAF fighter pilot to be awarded the Victoria Cross during the course of The Battle of Britain after climbing back into his burning Hawker Hurricane to engage a Messerschmitt 110 over the skies of Southampton.
Howard Newgass was awarded the school's only George Cross during WW2 after defusing an enemy mine over two days.
Lawrence Waddy took over as Headmaster in 1949. The Tonbridge he inherited was still a largely Victorian institution; fagging and ritual caning were still in place, and sport was considered more important than academia. Over the next 40 years personal fagging was abolished (ending in 1965), and the intellectual life of the school was revitalised (particularly under the Headmastership of Michael McCrum). McCrum, headmaster from 1962–70, abolished the right of senior boys to administer corporal punishment, taking over for himself the task of administering routine canings. 1st-Year Socials were set up with nearby girls' schools such as Benenden School and Roedean School. Boaters (known at the school as "barges"), straw hats worn by boys, were no longer compulsory uniform after a major town-gown fight in the 1970s. By the 1990s the school was larger, richer and more prominent than ever. The Headmaster until 2005 was Martin Hammond.
In 2005 the school was one of fifty leading independent schools found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents. Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. Jean Scott, the head of the Independent Schools Council, said that independent schools had always been exempt from anti-cartel rules applied to business, were following a long-established procedure in sharing the information with each other, and that they were unaware of the change to the law (on which they had not been consulted). She wrote to John Vickers, the OFT director-general, saying, "They are not a group of businessmen meeting behind closed doors to fix the price of their products to the disadvantage of the consumer. They are schools that have quite openly continued to follow a long-established practice because they were unaware that the law had changed."
The Good Schools Guide described the school as academically "Truly excellent," noting that "In 2008, the average GCSE candidate achieved 4A*s and 6As. 87 per cent got all A*/A and 98 per cent got all A*/A/B."
There are seven boarding houses and five day houses at Tonbridge each containing around sixty boys. In order of foundation:
Boarding houses:School House (1553)
Judde House (1825)
Park House (1867)
Hill Side (1875)
Ferox Hall (1892)
Manor House (1894)
Day houses:Welldon House (1932)
Smythe House (1932)
Cowdrey House (1994)
Oakeshott House (2000)
Each house is run by a housemaster with help from a deputy housemaster, two matrons and three or four tutors.
The school has produced a number of international rugby players throughout the history of rugby union. In 1871, in the first ever international rugby match, Tonbridge was represented by two players, J.E. Bentley and J.H. Luscombe. These players were also members of a team called the Gipsies Football Club, a London-based rugby football club for Old Tonbrigians founded in 1868. This club produced four other internationals including England captain Francis Luscombe, and was also one of the founding members of the Rugby Football Union.
Tonbridge alumni who have gone on to represent the England cricket team include Kenneth Hutchings, Colin Cowdrey, Roger Prideaux, Chris Cowdrey, Richard Ellison and Ed Smith. All six also played for Kent County Cricket Club and there is a long association between the school and Kent with a number of other Old Tonbridgians playing first-class cricket for the county side. Former Kent professionals who have coached the school cricket team include Alan Dixon, whom Richard Ellison credits for developing his swing bowling abilities, and John Knott.
The Head of School i.e. the head Praeposter is allowed to graze his sheep on the Head (the 1st XI cricket pitch) which is next to the main buildings. He is also allowed to grow a beard and historically was permitted to carry a sword. In the past only praepostors were allowed to wear coloured shirts (as opposed to plain white) and have brown shoes.T.H.P.Haynes 2005-
Revd. L.H.Waddy 1949-1962
Revd. C.C.Tancock 1898-1907
Revd. J. Wood 1890-1898
Revd. T.B. Rowe 1875-1890
Revd. J.I. Welldon 1843-1875
Ewart Astill - Master in charge of Cricket
George Austen - 18th century Second master and father of Jane Austen
James Cawthorn - headmaster 1743-61 and poet
Hilary Davan Wetton - former Director of Music
Clive Dytor - former chaplain
Martin Hammond - Headmaster (1990-2005)
John Inverarity - former Australia cricketer, briefly taught maths at Tonbridge after retiring from cricket
Vicesimus Knox - 18th century Headmaster
Reverend John Langhorne - (1836–1911), classics master and house master from 1860 to 1877.
Tony Little - a former assistant master at Tonbridge, Headmaster of Eton College
Michael McCrum - academic and historian, Headmaster (1962–70)
Robert Maxwell Ogilvie
Paul Parker - retired cricketer, now Classics and Modern Languages teacher
Anthony Seldon - head of history and general studies (1989–93), now at Wellington College, Berkshire
Jonathan Smith - novelist and writer, former head of English
D. C. Somervell - historian and author
Haldane Campbell Stewart - Director of Music (1898-1918), organist and choirmaster at Magdalen College, Oxford, cricketer for Kent.
Andy Whittall - Director of School Development, retired Zimbabwe cricketer, former teacher/coach and Housemaster of Ferox Hall
Former pupils are known at the school as Old Tonbridgians (OTs) and can join an organisation called the Old Tonbridgians' Society.