Supriya Ghosh

Temporal styloid process

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Dorlands /Elsevier  p_34/12667662
FMA  52877
TA  A02.1.06.047
Temporal styloid process
Latin  Processus styloideus ossis temporalis

The temporal styloid process is a process of bone that extends down from the temporal bone of the human skull, just below the ear.

Contents

Structure

The styloid process is a slender pointed piece of bone just below the ear. It projects down and forward from the inferior surface of the temporal bone, and serves as an anchor point for several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx.

  • Its proximal part (tympanohyal) is ensheathed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone (vaginal process).
  • Its distal part (stylohyal) gives attachment to the following:
  • stylohyoid ligament
  • stylomandibular ligament
  • styloglossus muscle (innervated by the hypoglossal nerve)
  • stylohyoid muscle (innervated by the facial nerve)
  • stylopharyngeus muscle (innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve)
  • The stylohyoid ligament extends from the apex of the process to the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone, and can sometimes be partially or completely ossified.

    A small percentage of the population will suffer from an elongation of the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament calcification. This condition is also known as Eagle syndrome. The tissues in the throat rub on the styloid process during the act of swallowing with resulting pain along the glossopharyngeal nerve. There is also pain upon turning the head or extending the tongue. Other symptoms may include voice alteration, cough, dizziness, migraines, occipital neuralgia, pain in teeth and jaw and sinusitis or bloodshot eyes.

    Development

    The styloid process arises from endochondral ossification of the cartilage from the second pharyngeal arch.

    References

    Temporal styloid process Wikipedia


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