In early European sources, based on accounts by French missionaries, the name of Quzhou (Fu) was transcribed in the contemporary French manner, as Kyu-tcheou-fou or Kiu-tcheou-fou.
During the Southern Song dynasty the descendant of Confucius at Qufu, the Duke Yansheng Kong Duanyou fled south with the Song Emperor to Quzhou, while the newly established Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in the north appointed Kong Duanyou's brother Kong Duancao who remained in Qufu as Duke Yansheng. From that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, once in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan dynasty Emperor Kublai Khan. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation, so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. The southern branch still remained in Quzhou where they lived to this day. Confucius's descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000. The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the southern branch at Quzhou by a Ming Emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke Yansheng. Kong Ruogu 孔若古 aka Kong Chuan(孔傳) 47th generation was claimed to be the ancestor of the Southern branch after Kong Zhu died by Northern branch member Kong Guanghuang. The leader of the southern branch is 孔祥楷 Kong Xiangkai.
The Southern Branch of the Confucius family at Quzhou (孔氏南宗)
The prefecture-level city of Quzhou administers 2 districts, 1 county-level city, and 3 counties.
The centre of Quzhou sits on a broad agricultural plain based on the Qiantang River. The river is known locally as the Qu River (衢江). It flows roughly southwest for 81.5 km (50.6 mi) and is flanked on both sides by hills. Almost all the rivers of Quzhou feed into the Qiantang system, which ultimately empties into Hangzhou Bay.
The terrain is higher in the west and the east. The territory of Quzhou Municipality is made up of plains (15%), hills (36%), and mountains (49%). In the north is the Qianli Gang (千里岗) mountain range and in the west the Yu Mountains (玉山脉). The highest mountains, the Xianxia Ling (仙霞岭) mountain range, lie in the south. The highest point in the city is at Dalong Gang (大龙岗), which rises to 1,500 m above sea level.
70.7% of the land is covered with forest. The rest is densely irrigated and farmed, producing citrus fruits, tea and mulberry leaves.
Quzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.31 °C (63.2 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 5.4 °C (41.7 °F) in January to 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,705 millimetres (67.1 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. The frost-free period lasts 251–261 days. Winds along the Qiantang River valley are predominantly north-easterly and north-east-easterly. Occasionally typhoons blow in from the Pacific Ocean. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 25% in March to 59% in August, the city receives 1,810 hours of bright sunshine annually.Ancestral Temple of the Southern Confucian Clan
Lanke Mountain, 10 km (6.2 mi) southeast of the city proper. It features green peaks and clear waters, and the huge rocks on top of the mountain support a horizontal rock to form a natural arch, the Tiansheng Bridge ("Nature-Formed").
As of 2003, Quzhou municipality registered a population of 2,413,500. The vast majority are Han Chinese (99.16%) but there are also small minorities of She (0.73%) and Hui, Zhuang, Manchu and Miao (together making up 0.1%). Most of the people in Quzhou are engaged in agriculture (2,035,100). The genders are roughly evenly split. Population density is 273 people per km². At any given time there are a handful of foreign (mainly European and Australian) teachers at the schools and university of Quzhou, as well as alleged but never seen Russian Military Personnel who work and advise at the military base.
Quzhou is well served by both railways and highways. The city of Quzhou is a major connection hub between the three provinces of Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian, with the Zhegan Railroad running through southern Quzhou and the Qu River flowing past northern Quzhou. A local saying goes: "Four provinces through Qu, it's the head of five roads" (四省通衢、五路总头).Airport
Quzhou Airport, ranked as class 4C, is located 3 km (1.9 mi) away from east side of city centre, and this airport was built in 22nd year of Republic of China (1933).The destinations are Beijing, Xiamen and Shenzhen. Airplane timetable and more information can be found on Quzhou airport official website. The nearest large-scale airport is Hangzhou International Airport, and its information can be found on Hangzhou International Airport Official WebsiteRailway
One of the most famous railway passes through the city is Shanghai-Kunming Railway with a speed of 200 km/h (120 mph). This railway has three stations in city, which are Longyou Station, Quzhou Station, Jiangshan Station. More information can be found on Quzhou Railway WebsiteHighway
Quzhou South Station, also named as Quzhou Express Station (衢州快客站),located in No.209 Shang Street, has 27 buses to Hangzhou, 18 to Jinhua, 8 to Ningbo, 6 to Wenzhou, and 3 to Shanghai daily. Another Express Station is located in He Hua Middle Road (荷花中路), on the south of newly built train station, and its destinations cover most cities in Jiangxi Province and Fujian Province. More bus information can be found on http://www.icha.com.cn/RailwayStation/130.html