Qadian is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement. It remained the centre of the Ahmadiyya movement until the Partition of India in 1947.
Qadian was established in 1530 by Mirza Hadi Baig, a religious scholar dedicated to Islam and the first Qazi within the area. Mirza Hadi Baig was from a royal household of Mirza of the Mughal Empire. He migrated from Samarkand and settled in Punjab. He was a descendant of King Timur and related to King Babur, who have him 80 villages by. Because of his religious beliefs, he named the center of the 80 villages 'Islam Pur Qazi' and governed from there. Over time, the name of the town changed to 'QaziMaji' ('Maji' means 'bull', referring to the animal still found in abundance in Qadian). Later, it was called just 'Qadi' and eventually became known as 'Qadian'.
Qadian and the surrounding areas later fell to the Ramgharia Sikhs who offered the ruling Qazis, two villages which they refused. In 1834, during the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the region consisting of Qadian and five adjoining villages was given to Mirza Ghulam Murtaza, father of Ghulam Ahmad in return for military support in Kashmir, Mahadi, the Kulu valley, Peshawar and Hazara.
A remote and unknown town, Qadian emerged as a centre of religious learning in 1889, when Mirza Ghulam Ahmad established the Ahmadiyya Muslim community, and in 1891 it became the venue for the community's annual gatherings. Qadian remained the administrative headquarters and capital of the Ahmadiyya Caliphate until the partition of India in 1947, when much of the community migrated to Pakistan. Following the partition, Mirza Mahmood Ahmad, the second Khalifa of the community, carefully oversaw the safe migration of Ahmadis from Qadian to the newly founded state, instructing 313 men, including two of his own sons, to stay in Qadian and guard the sites holy to Ahmadis, conferring upon them the title darveshān-i qādiyān (the dervishes of Qadian) and eventually moving the headquarters to Rabwah, Pakistan.
Qadian is located at 31.82°N 75.39°E / 31.82; 75.39. It has an average elevation of 250 metres (820 feet).
As of India's census in 2013, Qadian had a population of 40,827. Males constituted 54% of the population and females 46%. Qadian has an average literacy rate of 75%, slightly higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 70%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Before the partition of India, the town of Qadian had a majority Muslim population because of the many religious materials belonging to the Islamic faith. Since 1947, Qadian's population is mostly Sikh or Hindu: Prajapatis (Kumhar), Bhatias, Brahmins, Arya Samajis and Bajwas (most of whom migrated from Pakistani Punjab during partition); as Bajwas came from Kalaswala Punjab (now in Pakistan— Kalaswala Khalsa School Qadian there is named in memory of Qadian) based with some members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community staying behind to care for the community's buildings and mosques. The vast majority of the community migrated to Pakistan during the partition of India.
During the partition of India. The Prime Institute Sikh National College was shifted from Lahore to Qadian. Many famous names are involved with this College (see next section).
Although Qadian is relatively remote and has a very small population, it has many notable historical, religious and political figures;Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mirza Nasir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Shiv Kumar Batalvi (Birha Da Sultan)
Mirza Ghulam Murtaza
Mirza Hadi Baig
Tripat Rajinder Singh Bajwa
Partap Singh Bajwa
Charanjit Kaur Bajwa
S.S.Bajwa Memorial Senior Secondary School
Vibudhah College of Health Sciences
Taleem UL Islam Senior Secondary School
Jamia Ahmadiyya Qadian
Nusrat Girls High School
Nusrat Girls College
Ahmadiyya Centre for Computer Education
A.V.M. High School
Daya Nanad Anglo Vedic School
Khalsa Senior Secondary School
New generation computer centre main bazar qadian
SPS Garden Valley
Sikh National College
Singh Sabha Gurdwara
Bahishti Maqbara cemetery