Pattukkottai comes under the Pattukkottai assembly constituency which elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years and it is a part of the Thanjavur (Lok Sabha constituency) which elects its Member of Parliament (MP) once in five years. The town is administered by the Pattukkottai municipality, which covers an area of 21.83 km2 (8.43 sq mi). As of 2011, the town had a population of 73,135. The town is a part of the fertile Cauvery delta region, but fishery is the major occupation. Roadways are the major mode of transportation to Pattukkottai and the nearest international airport is Tiruchirapalli Airport, located 100 km (62 mi) away from the town.
According to an inscription, the fortress of Pattukkottai was constructed by Vanaji Pandithar, a feudatory of the Thanjavur Maratha ruler Shahuji I in 1686–87. Pattukkottai was ruled by the Thanjavur Marathas till 1799, when it was annexed by the British East India Company. It became a part of Tanjore district in 1801.
Having a population of 7,603 in 1901, Pattukkottai experienced a population splurge between 1941 and 1981, when its population quadrupled. Sri Puradhana Vaneswarar temple is the most important Hindu temple in Pattukkottai and is of considerable antiquity.
Pattukkottai 10.43°N 79.32°E / 10.43; 79.32 is located along the southeast coast of India in the East-central region of Tamil Nadu. Pattukkottai Municipality covers an area of 21.83 km2., and has an average elevation of 5 meters (16 feet). Pattukkottai is 48 km from the city of Thanjavur. The coast of the Bay of Bengal is just 12 km away, with Manora fort 15 km away from this town.
Pattukkottai lies on an extremely dry, rugged plateau. The Pattukkottai division is the only division of Thanjavur district which is not watered either by the Kaveri River or any of its tributaries. Pattukkottai comes under the "As" region of the Köppen climate classification, as it is situated in Tropical region and receive its maximum rainfall during the winter months from October, November and December. Due to its geographical position, Pattukkottai experiences Hot and Humid climate and there is no extreme variation in seasonal temperature. As it is nearer to equator, the summer season starts from April and extends till early June. This period observes the hottest part of the year, locally known as "Agni Nakshatram" or "Khatri".
According to 2011 census, Pattukkottai had a population of 73,135 with a sex-ratio of 1,010 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 7,019 were under the age of six, constituting 3,630 males and 3,389 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 5.86% and .8% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the town was 80.68%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The town had a total of 18437 households. There were a total of 25,908 workers, comprising 623 cultivators, 2,044 main agricultural labourers, 697 in house hold industries, 19,653 other workers, 2,891 marginal workers, 118 marginal cultivators, 534 marginal agricultural labourers, 172 marginal workers in household industries and 2,067 other marginal workers.
As per the religious census of 2011, Pattukkottai had 86.82% Hindus, 7.57% Muslims, 5.34% Christians, 0.02% Sikhs, 0.07% Buddhists, 0.06% Jains, 0.1% following other religions and 0.02% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.
Tamil is the official language and is predominantly spoken. The most commonly used dialects is the Central Tamil dialect. English is widely understood in the town area.
The municipality of Pattukkottai was constituted on April 1, 1965 covering an area of 21.83 sq. kilometres. Pattukkottai was upgraded to a second-grade municipality on April 1, 1975 and a first-grade municipality on April 7, 1984. Presently, it is a selection-grade municipality and consists of 33 wards. The municipality is sub-divided into five revenue villages – Nadiyambal Puram, Kailasanathapuram, Maharajasamudram, Rengojiyappa Thottam and Pappaveli Palayamkottai.
Pattukkottai is a MLA constituency and has been a part of the Thanjavur parliamentary constituency from 2009. Prior to that, it fell within the Pudukkottai constituency. As per the latest draft electoral rolls released by the election commission, the Pattukottai assembly segment comprises 1,77,798 voters (85,476 male and 83,902 female). Besides Pattukkottai Municipality, the Assembly segment includes Madukkur Town Panchayat, Adirampattinam Town Panchayat and a number of villages.
Pattukkottai is a part of the Thanjavur Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years. The Lok Sabha seat has been held by the Indian National Congress for Seven terms during 1951–56, 1957–62, 1962–1967, 1980–84, 1984–1989, 1989–91 and 1991–96, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam for Seven terms during 1967–71, 1971–77, 1996–98, 1998–99, 1999-04, 2004–09 and 2009–present and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam for one term during 1977–80. R. Venkataraman, who served as the President of India from 1987 to 1992, was elected from the Thanjavur Lok Sabha constituency in the 1951 elections.
In British times, brass vessels, cotton cloths and mats were the main manufactures of Pattukkottai. In 1951, anthropologist Kathleen Gough notes that Pattukkottai had the largest portion of zamindari and inam lands in Thanjavur district.
Agriculture, using water from the Kaveri River for irrigation, is the mainstay of the area, though the town hosts a number of other businesses. Paddy and Coconut are the major crops. Pattukkottai was declared a "coir cluster" in September 2007 in order to promote traditional coir-based industries.
In Tamil Nadu after Pollachi, coconut cultivation has been extensively done in Pattukkottai surroundings on 30,000 hectares. Pattukottai has been declared a Coir Cluster under a Central scheme called "Scheme Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries" (SFURT). A coconut complex at Ponnvarayankottai near Pattukottai is to be constructed at a cost of Rs.4 crore which will have sections for trading, grading coconuts and separating copra, drying yard, shops for traders, restrooms, information centre and parking lots. It would be expanded in future depending upon the needs of farmers. There are also demands to set up industries to promote Coir-related products with value addition.
Electricity supply to Pattukottai is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The city along with its suburbs is a part of Trichy Electricity Distribution Circle. Water supply is handled by the municipality and the town gets an average of 7.65 million litres of water everyday from the Sathankadu head works pumped from 3 pumping stations. Pattukkottai has a total of 63 kilometres of metalled roads, 9.5 kilometres of cemented roads and 0,1 kilometre of unsurfaced roads. The municipality maintains 5 parks, 5 shopping complexes and a daily market.
Solid waste are collected from Pattukottai every day by door-to-door collection and subsequently the source segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of the Pattukottai municipality. The coverage of solid waste management had an efficiency of 100% as of 2001. The is no underground drainage system in the town and the current sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences.
There is one government hospital, 24 private hospitals and a lot of practising doctors in Pattukottai who take care of the health care needs of the citizens. There are a total of 2,883 street lamps: 448 sodium lamps, 2,432 tube lights and three high mast beam lamps. The municipality operates one markets, namely the Alagiri Daily Market, while there is a private market by name V.N.S.Market. Pattukottai comes under the Thanjavur Telecom circle of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service.
Pattukkottai has a total of 21 primary and secondary schools and a polytechnic college. There are two arts colleges
Pattukkottai is well-connected by road and rail with the rest of Tamil Nadu. There are regular buses to Chennai, Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai, Karaikudi, Kumbakonam, Mayiladuthurai, Thiruthuraipoondi, Mannargudi, Pudukkottai, Aranthangi, Keeramangalam, Tiruvannamalai and Sivagangai. Pattukkottai forms a part of the division no. 1 of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation which is headquartered at Kumbakonam. The town has 2 bus depots for inter-city bus services. Pattukkottai comes under Tiruchirappalli Railway Division of the Southern Railway.