Panagarh is located at 23.45°N 87.43°E / 23.45; 87.43. It has an average elevation of 58 m (190 ft).
The Asansol-Durgapur region is composed of undulating latterite soil. This area lies between two mighty rivers – the Damodar and the Ajay. They flow almost parallel to each other in the region – the average distance between the two rivers is around 30 km. The entire Durgapur-Kanksa-Faridpur-Ausgram area was densely forested even in more recent times. The influx of refugees from East Pakistan and their rehabilitation in the area, and irrigation facilities extended by Damodar Valley Corporation led to destruction of much of the forests in the area, but some still remain.
Panagarh Airport was constructed in 1944, during the Second World War. It serves as a base for the Indian Air Force. In 2016, it was renamed as Air Force Station Arjan Singh.
One of the 62 cantonments in the country is located at Panagarh.
As per the 2011 Census of India Panagar had a total population of 5,510, of which 2,796 (51%) were males and 2,714 (49%) were females. Population below 6 years was 650. The total number of literates in Panagar was 3,836 (78.93% of the population over 6 years).
Panagarh is a station on the Bardhaman-Asansol section, which is a part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line, Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line and Howrah-Delhi main line.
Earlier, NH 19 passed through Panagarh Bazar. A bypass was constructed in 2016, avoiding the crowded bazar area. The old Grand Trunk Road continues to pass through the town.
SH 14 passes through Panagarh. The Dubrajpur-Panagarh sector of SH 14 is part of Panagarh–Morgram Highway.
Panagarh has five primary schools, Rama Krishna Ashrama Vidyapitha, the Kendriya Vidyalaya, Secondary School (Panagarh Railway Colony School) and two higher secondary schools (Panagarh Bazar Hindi High School and Kanksha High School).
Panagarh has two engineering colleges viz. Aryabhatta Institute of Engineering & Management Durgapur and Techno India, Durgapur.
There is a block primary health centre at Panagarh.