Fort Bosley, located near the present day border of Derry Township and the Borough of Washingtonville, was the county's only fortified location during the Revolutionary War.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 132 square miles (340 km2), of which 130 square miles (340 km2) is land and 2.1 square miles (5.4 km2) (1.6%) is water. It is the smallest county by area in Pennsylvania. A total of 45% of Montour County is wooded. The entire county sits inside the Susquehanna River watershed. The other major streams in Montour County include Chillisquaque Creek and Mahoning Creek.Lycoming County (north)
Columbia County (east)
Northumberland County (south & west)
Montour County is located in the Ridge-and-Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains. A total of 65% of the soils in the county are well-drained. The Muncy Hills are located in the northern part of the county and Montour Ridge is located in the southern part of the county, not far from the Susquehanna River. Montour Ridge also is home to the highest elevation in the county, 1425 feet above sea level. The lowest elevation is 440 feet above sea level, at the Susquehanna River.
The sedimentary rocks in Montour County are from either the Devonian Period or the Silurian Period. The Devonian Period rocks are more common than Silurian Period rocks, making up two thirds of the county. These rocks are prevalent in the Muncy Hills and the lowlands in the southern portion of the county. The Devonian Period rocks in Montour County include the Catskill Formation, the Marcellus Shale, the Helderburg Formation, the Mahantango Formation, the Oriskany Formation, the Marine Beds, and the Onondaga Formation. The other one third of the rocks in Montour County are from the Silurian Period. Rocks from this period are prevalent on Montour Ridge and the adjacent valley and the hills to the northwest of Washingtonville. These areas consist of the Wills Creek formation, the Tonoloway Formation, the Bloomsburg Formation, the Tuscarora Formation, the Clinton Group, and the McKenzie Formation.
There are three major anticlines and synclines in Montour County. These are the White Deer Anticline, the Lackawanna Syncline, and the Milton Anticline. These are located in the northern, central, and Montour Ridge areas of the county, respectively. These features are situated i a northeast-southwest alignment. They were formed by regional compression and uplift approximately 200 million years ago, during the Permian Period. During the Pleistocene Period, the Illinoian glacial advance reached Montour County, although the Wisconsin glacial advance stopped slightly short of it. There are alluvial deposits in many of the river valleys in the county, especially there two streams or rivers meet. These deposits were formed fairly recently, geologically speaking.
The water supply for Montour County comes primarily from the Susquehanna River, as well as wells and springs. The rural areas especially depend on wells for their water supply, but Danville mostly uses the Susquehanna River. Wells drilled into Silurian rock have a tendency to be highly hard and prone to developing sinkholes. However, the Keyser, Wills Creek, and Tonoloway Formations are considerably better at producing water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 18,236 people, 7,085 households, and 4,817 families residing in the county. The population density was 140 people per square mile (54/km2). There were 7,627 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile (23/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 96.67% White, 1.01% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.38% from other races, and 0.59% from two or more races. 0.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 33.2% were of German, 13.2% American, 8.1% Irish, 6.6% English, 5.7% Italian and 5.6% Polish ancestry according to the 2000 census.
There were 7,085 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.00% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.98.
In Montour County, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, and 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 90.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.00 males.
Montour County live birth rate was 249 births in 1990. Montour County's live birth rate in 2000 was 213 births, while in 2011 it increased to 228 babies.County poverty demographics
According to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, which is a legislative agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for Montour County was 11.2% in 2014. The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by school district was: Danville Area School District - 28.8% living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level and Warrior Run School District - 32.2%.
According to the US Census Bureau, from 2009-2014 Montour County saw a 37% increase in the number of families in the federal food assistance program called SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program). The number of people or families receiving monthly SNAP dollars rose from 491 in 2009 to 674 people in 2014.Teen Pregnancy rate
The Pennsylvania Department of Health reports the annual teens aged 15–19 birth rate. From 2011 to 2015, Montour County experienced a 19% decline in teen pregnancies. In Pennsylvania the majority of pupils graduate from high school at age 18 years old. Montour County is home to an Amish population where pregnancies at 17–19 years old are common.2015 - 87
2014 - 85
2013 - 82
2012 - 96
2011 - 108
The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Montour County as the Bloomsburg-Berwick, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2010 U.S. Census the metropolitan area ranked 20th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 368th most populous in the United States with a population of 82,562. Montour County is also a part of the larger Bloomsburg-Berwick-Sunbury, PA Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which combines the populations of Montour County as well as Columbia, Northumberland, Snyder and Union Counties in Pennsylvania. The Combined Statistical Area ranked 8th in the State of Pennsylvania and 115th most populous in the United States with a population of 264,739.
There are approximately 350 farms in Montour County. The majority of these farms produce beef, hogs, and dairy. Limestone is mined in some areas in the county.
The County is run by three, locally elected county commissioners who serve 4 year terms.
In October 2015, Montour County Commissioners sought court approval for a $1 million emergency loan to cover expenses. The loan was necessitated by the lack of a state general fund budget, which delayed many state and federal program funding streams to the county. The hearing will be before Judge Thomas James, Jr. By state law, the county commissioners must have court approval to take out debt outside of the usual budget and debt processes.
The average yearly property tax paid by Montour County residents amounts to about 2.86% of their yearly income. Montour County ranked 689th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income. The median property tax in Montour County, Pennsylvania is $1,497 per year for a home worth the median value of $143,900. The County and the local school district collect separate property tax levies on private property.
Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit #16 provides a wide variety of services to children living in Montour County. These include early intervention, special education support services, driver education on road training, speech and hearing therapy and autistic support. Services for children during the preschool years are provided without cost to their families when the child is determined to meet eligibility requirements.
Danville Area Head StartDanville Area School District (also in Northumberland County)
Warrior Run School District (also in Northumberland and Union Counties)
SusQ Cyber Charter School
As reported by the Pennsylvania Department of Education - EdNA. February 2014
CSIU16 School Directory 2014 Thomas Beaver Free Library - Danville 
In 2014, 195 child abuse reports were made to the Montour Children and Youth Agency. In 2015, reported cases increased to 259 a 28% increase in reports over 2014. The increase in cases was attributed to a new state law specifying more professions are mandated reporters including: teachers, college professors, coaches, advisors of youth organizations and public school employees.
Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, boroughs, townships, and, in one case, towns. The following boroughs and townships are located in Montour County:Danville (county seat)
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Montour County.
† county seat