The Japanese mobile phone industry is one of the most advanced in the world. As of July 31, 2013 there were 139,180,300 mobile phones in use in Japan. This is 110 percent of Japan's total population. (Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
In Japanese, mobile phone handsets (携帯電話端末, keitaidenwa-tanmatsu) are often referred to as simply keitai denwa (携帯電話) or keitai (携帯) for short.
In the year 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) launched the world's first first generation (1G) mobile phone service in Tokyo as a car phone.
In 1985, NTT offered Japan's first mobile phone service, called the "Shoulder Phone."
In 1988, Mobile Communication Group, which later was absorbed into KDDI, started mobile phone service
In 1993, NTT DoCoMo started its first digital mobile phone service (2G), using a Time division multiple access (TDMA) variant called Personal Digital Cellular.
In 1994, Digital Phone Group and Tu-Ka Group, both of which later became SoftBank Mobile, started mobile phone service. In the same year, DDI Pocket, a subsidiary of KDDI, started PHS mobile phone service.
In 1999, NTT DoCoMo started i-mode Internet service.
In 2001, NTT DoCoMo premiered the world's first Third Generation mobile phone service (3G), using W-CDMA technology called FOMA.
In 2002, KDDI started 3G service in Okinawa, using CDMA2000 technology. In the same year, J-Phone started 3G service using W-CDMA technology.
In 2003, J-Phone changed its name to Vodafone.
In 2006, Vodafone Japan was purchased by SoftBank and renamed to SoftBank Mobile. In the same year, MNP (Mobile Number Portability) was introduced.
In 2007, Japanese regulator introduced new guideline for unbundling new handset price and service plan.
In 2010, SoftBank Mobile stopped all non-3G services, focusing on 3G service only.
There are four cellular service operators in Japan. Willcom is the last PHS Personal Handy-phone System service operator.
DoCoMo was spun off in 1991 from Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT), NTT DoCoMo first offered its second-generation service known as Personal Digital Cellular (PDC). It now offers a 3G service using W-CDMA technology known as FOMA. The company is operating a world band W-CDMA network at 2100 MHz. As of March 2016, the number of subscribers is 71 million.
KDDI was formed by the merger of KDD (International phone service operator), DDI (nationwide CDMA operator except for Kanto and Tokai area), and IDO (CDMA operator for Kanto and Tokai area) in 2000. They offer the au mobile phone service: its second generation service, using CDMA technology, and 3G service, using CDMA2000. Their operating bands are 800 MHz and 2100 MHz. As of March 2016, there are 46 million subscribers.
Softbank Mobile is a subsidiary of Softbank. Softbank purchased Vodafone Japan at $15b in 2006. Softbank Mobile now offers 3G service using W-CDMA technology at 2100 MHz. Softbank Mobile was also the exclusive service provider of Apple iPhone in Japan until November 2011. As of March 2016, there were 40 million subscribers.
Y!mobile, formerly EMOBILE, is the most recent entrant into the 3G market. Beginning in 2005, it has provided 3G data and voice service coverage to 90% of the Japanese population through its own network and a roaming agreement with NTT DoCoMo. Their band is 1700 MHz which is not compatible with other area's W-CDMA phone. As of December 2013, the projected subscriber base was over 10 million subscribers.
The Japanese mobile phone market is known for its extremely competitive and saturated market, which, combined with a complex regulatory environment, has led to growing consolidation among manufacturers and providers alike.
Mobile telecommunications operating licenses are administered by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. In Japan, there have never been band license auction. Usually MIC issued operating licenses by just paper checking.
Collaboration by the various companies can be seen at the Yokosuka Research Park, near NTT's Yokosuka R&D Center, where many manufacturers have research and development laboratories offices. An outdoor testing site is also located there.
Since the introduction of new regulation about unbundling service plan and handset price in 2008, the Japanese handset market has shrunk. At its peak, in 2007, the total handset shipping amount was roughly 52M units. However, the number for 2009 was roughly 32M units. This caused a serious recession for the handset industry and a consolidation of handset vendors because most of the handset vendors relied solely on the Japanese market.
Japan's PHS technology has been exported to China, Taiwan, and other countries. NTT DoCoMo's i-mode web technology had been used by Australia's Telstra, Russia's Mobile TeleSystems, UK's O2 and a few other mobile service providers overseas. NTT has been one of the main contributors to the 3G W-CDMA standard. NTT DoCoMo collaborated with AT&T Mobility to set up a 3G-compatible mobile phone network in Hawaii.
The following manufacturers currently market and sell handsets within Japan:
Sanyo Electric, although formerly an independent manufacturer of handsets, sold its handset business to Kyocera in 2008. Mitsubishi Electric quit mobile phone business in Apr 2008. Nokia discontinued development of mobile phones for Japanese market in 2009. DoCoMo M702iS which was released on December 2006, is the last Motorola phone for Japan, but in 2011 Motorola returns to sell its handset for Japan. Now Motorola phones are made by Lenovo.
Japanese manufacturers have had difficulty marketing their phones overseas. In 2009, out of all Japanese handset manufacturers, Sony Ericsson (now called Sony Mobile) sold the most handsets worldwide (after non-Japanese Nokia, Samsung, LG Electronics and Motorola); domestically, Sharp sold one quarter of the Japanese market, followed by Fujitsu, Panasonic, NEC and Kyocera.
Japan's mobile phones traditionally used the ITRON operating system, but as the functions become more complex, they have begun to employ more generally used operating systems, such as Symbian OS, Embedded Linux, Windows Mobile and Android. Most handsets on the market today use one of either Symbian OS, REX OS, or Embedded Linux.
Input on mobile phones is performed using hiragana, katakana, kanji, and alphanumeric characters. A character mode function allows the user to select from among these types of character input. Kanji characters are selected by first inputting hiragana, then converting (変換, henkan) the characters. Kana characters are laid out on the mobile phone keys in the 50 character table format: A-column characters on 1 key, Ka-column characters on the 2 key, etc.
The alphabetic character mode allows input of Roman characters; however, English-language word prediction (such as T9) is rarely implemented in Japanese handsets. Support for other languages and character sets, such as French, Russian (Cyrillic), and Chinese (both traditional and simplified characters), is not standard on handsets from domestic manufacturers.
The Japanese are known for their development of emoji (絵文字, lit. "picture characters") and kaomoji (顔文字, lit. "face characters") to express emotions in email messages. A large number and variety of emoji and kaomoji are available on handsets. Foreign manufacturers (such as Apple), in order to ensure compatibility with Japanese-made handsets, have introduced emoji on their handsets around the world. Gmail and other email services have also introduced emoji that can be sent and received from mobile handsets as well as computers.All handsets sold in Japan were formerly "locked" for use in Japan only, due to the demands of service providers. Likewise, providers also refused to sell USIM cards by themselves without a handset or for a handset brought in from overseas, although NTT DoCoMo has recently relaxed this business practice. In accordance with the recommendations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' mobile business consultative committee, some Japanese phone manufacturers began to produce unlocked handsets in 2011. Sharp, Fujitsu, NEC and Panasonic now offer a number of unlocked handsets as part of the 2011-12 NTT DoCoMo range.