Puneet Varma (Editor)

Migratory locust

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Kingdom  Animalia
Order  Orthoptera
Family  Acrididae
Scientific name  Locusta migratoria
Rank  Species
Phylum  Arthropoda
Suborder  Caelifera
Subfamily  Oedipodinae
Higher classification  Locusta

Similar  Insect, Grasshopper, Desert locust, Orthoptera, Acrididae

Diseased migratory locust locusta migratoria


The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) is the most widespread locust species, and the only species in the genus Locusta. It occurs throughout Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. It used to be common in Europe but has now become rare there. Because of the vast geographic area it occupies, which comprises many different ecological zones, numerous subspecies have been described. However, not all experts agree on the validity of some of these subspecies.

Contents

Migratory locust httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu

Many other species of grasshopper with gregarious and possibly migratory behaviour are referred to as 'locusts' in the vernacular, including the widely distributed desert locust.

Polyphenism

Migratory locust Home Migratory locust Department of Agriculture and Water Resources

The migratory locust is polyphenic. It transitions between two main phenotypes in response to population density; the solitary phase and the gregarious phase. As the density of the population increases the locust transforms progressively from the solitary phase towards the gregarious phase with intermediate phases:

Solitaire = solitary phase → transiens congregans (intermediate form) → gregarious phase → transiens dissocians (intermediate form) → solitaire = solitary phase.

Pigmentation and size of the migratory locust vary according to its phase (gregarious or solitary form) and its age. Gregarious larvae have a yellow to orange covering with black spots; solitary larvae are green or brown. The gregarious adult is brownish with yellow, the latter colour becoming more intense and extensive on maturation. The solitary adult is brown with varying extent of green colour depending on the colour of the vegetation. Gregarious adults vary in size between 40 and 60 mm according to the sex; they are smaller than the solitary adults.

Economic impact

Locusts are highly mobile, and usually fly with the wind at a speed of about 15 to 20 kilometres per hour (9.3 to 12.4 mph). Swarms can travel 5 to 130 km or more in a day. Locust swarms can vary from less than one square kilometre to several hundred square kilometres with 40 to 80 million individuals per square kilometre. An adult locust can consume its own weight (several grams) in fresh food per day. For every million locusts, one ton of food is eaten.

In Africa, the last serious widespread plague of L. m. migratorioides occurred from 1928 to 1942. Since then, environmental transformations have made the development of swarms from the African migratory locust unlikely. Nevertheless, potential outbreaks are constantly monitored as plagues can be devastating. The Malagasy migratory locust (L. m. capito) still regularly swarms (roughly twice every ten years). The desert locust, which is very similar to the African migratory locust, remains a major threat too.

Locust survey and control are primarily the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture in locust-affected countries and are operations undertaken by national locust units. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations provides information on the general locust situation to all interested countries and gives warnings and forecasts to those countries in danger of invasion.

Edibility

The migratory locust is edible.

Subspecies of Locusta migratoria

L. migratoria is found over a vast geographic area, and its range covers many different ecological zones. Because of this, numerous subspecies have been described; however, not all experts agree on the validity of some of these subspecies.

  • L. m. burmana Ramme, 1951
  • L. m. capito Saussure, 1884 (Madagascar)
  • L. m. cinerascens Fabricius, 1781 (Italy, Spain)
  • L. m. manilensis (Meyen, 1835) 1 (eastern Asia)
  • L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758) (West and Central Asia, eastern Europe)
  • L. m. migratorioides (Fairmaire & L.J. Reiche, 1849) (Africa and Atlantic islands)
  • L. m. tibetensis Chen, Yonglin, 1963
  • L. m. danica (Linnaeus, 1767) = L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • L. m. gallica Remaudičre, 1947 = L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • L. m. solitaria Carthy, 1955 = L. m. migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Other species called 'locusts'

    Other species of Orthoptera that display gregarious and migratory behaviour are called 'locusts'.

  • American locust Schistocerca americana
  • Australian plague locust Chortoicetes terminifera
  • Bombay locust Nomadacris succincta
  • Brown locust Locustana pardalina
  • Desert locust Schistocerca gregaria
  • Egyptian locust Anacridium aegyptium
  • Italian locust Calliptamus italicus
  • Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus
  • Red locust Nomadacris septemfasciata
  • Rocky Mountain locust Melanoplus spretus – extinct
  • Sahelian tree locust Anacridium melanorhodon
  • Spur-throated locust, Australis procera
  • Sudan plague locust Aiolopus simulatrix
  • The Senegalese grasshopper (Oedaleus senegalensis) also often displays locust-like behaviour in the Sahel region.

    References

    Migratory locust Wikipedia


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