| Mansoura University, Mansoura College International School AMG|
Mansoura (Arabic: ? al-Mansura, , ) is a city in Egypt, with a population of 480,494. It is the capital of the Dakahlia Governorate.
Mansoura was established in 1219 by al-Kamil of the Ayyubid dynasty. After the Egyptians defeated the Crusaders during the Sixth Crusade, it was named Mansoura (aka. "The Victorious").
In the Seventh Crusade, the Capetians were defeated and put to flight; between fifteen to thirty thousand of their men fell on the battlefield. Louis IX of France was captured in the main Battle of Mansoura, and confined in the house of Ibrahim ben Lokman, secretary of the sultan, and under the guard of the eunuch Sobih. The kings brother was imprisoned in the same house. The sultan provided for their sustenance. The house of Ibrahim ben Lokman is now the only museum in Mansoura. It is open to the public and houses articles that used to belong to the French monarch, including his personal thirteenth century toilet.
The Mansura Air Battle on October 14, 1973 occurred during the Yom Kippur War. Israeli Air Force fighters attacking Egyptian air bases were intercepted by the Egyptian Air Force. On that day, 160 jet fighters, most belonging to Israel, battled for 53 minutes over Mansoura. Despite the numerical and qualitative superiority of the Israeli warplanes, 18 Israeli planes were downed. The rest retreated. Egypt announced the loss of six planes, only three of which fell to Israeli fire. The Egyptian government subsequently changed the country’s "Air Force Day" from November 2 to October 14, to commemorate the Mansoura Air Battle.
Mansoura lies on the east bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, in the Delta region. Mansoura is about 120 km northeast of Cairo. Across from the city, on the opposite bank of the Nile, is the town of Talkha.
The Egyptian Arabic dialect spoken by Mansouras population is a northern Egyptian Arabic dialect, with noticeable influences from the citys surrounding rural villages, each of which has contributed to the citys population over the years. There are some similarities to Alexandrian Egyptian Arabic in some aspects of pronunciation.
Mansoura National Museum used to be Dar Ibn Lockman, the house where Louis IX was imprisoned in 1250 during the Seventh Crusade. Displayed in the museum are the suits of mail and swords of the crusaders, as well as a collection of maps. Huge paintings depict the Battle of Mansoura.
The Mansoura branch of the National Library was recently inaugurated as the Mansoura Misr Library.
Mansoura is famous for its architectural style, especially the Shinnawi Palace (after Mohamed Bek El-Shinnawi, a member of the Wafd Party). It was built by an Italian architect in 1928. The mosque of El-Saleh Ayoub El-Kebir is one of the most important in Mansoura. It was built by a loyal servant of the Sultan and is located in Al-Sagha Street that separates "Old Mansoura" from the modern city.
Like Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said, Mansoura was home to a flourishing Greek community until the Nasser era, when many were forced to leave. Many of the older and best established shops and businesses around the city still bear their original Greek names. The first Old English school in the city was established on the site of the old Greek school in the Toriel area, one of the traditionally relatively affluent residential districts of the city.