Samiksha Jaiswal

Mammals of Olympic National Park

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Mammals of Olympic National Park

There are at least 9 large terrestrial mammal, 50 small mammal and 14 marine mammal species known to occur in Olympic National Park.

Contents

Species are listed by common name, scientific name, and occurrence. Common and scientific names from Washington State Field Guides-Mammals of Washington.

Legend

  • A = Abundant
  • C = Common
  • CL = Common locally
  • U= Uncommon
  • UL = Uncommon locally
  • R = Rare
  • E = Extirpated
  • I = Introduced
  • EN = Endemic species
  • Black bear

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Ursidae

    Occurrence: Forests, slide areas, alpine meadows - C

    The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is North America's smallest and most common species of bear. It is a generalist animal, being able to exploit numerous different habitats and foodstuffs. The American black bear is listed by the IUCN as least concern, due to the species widespread distribution and a large global population estimated to be twice that of all other bear species combined.

    Bobcat

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Felidae

    Occurrence: Open forests, brushy areas - C

    The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae. With twelve recognized subspecies, it ranges from southern Canada to northern Mexico, including most of the continental United States. The bobcat is an adaptable predator that inhabits wooded areas, as well as semi-desert, urban edge, forest edges and swampland environments. It persists in much of its original range and populations are healthy.

    Canadian lynx

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Felidae

    Occurrence: Coniferous forests E W

    The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae. It is a close relative of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Some authorities regard both as conspecific. However, in some characteristics the Canadian lynx is more like the bobcat (Lynx rufus) than the Eurasian lynx. With the recognized subspecies, it ranges across Canada and into Alaska as well as some parts of the northern United States.

    Cougar

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Felidae

    Occurrence: Coniferous forests - C

    The cougar (Puma concolor), also known as puma, mountain lion, mountain cat, catamount or panther, depending on the region, is a mammal of the family Felidae, native to the Americas. This large, solitary cat has the greatest range of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, extending from Yukon in Canada to the southern Andes of South America. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in every major American habitat type. It is the second heaviest cat in the American continents after the jaguar. Although large, the cougar is most closely related to smaller felines.

    Coyote

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Canidae

    Occurrence: Forests, grasslands - C

    The coyote (/kˈt/ or /ˈk.t/) (Canis latrans), also known as the American jackal or the prairie wolf, is a species of canid found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States and Canada. It occurs as far north as Alaska and all but the northernmost portions of Canada.

    Elk

    The subspecies Roosevelt elk (Cervus canadensis roosevelti) occurs in the park.

    Order: Artiodactyla, Family: Cervidae

    Occurrence: Open forests, meadows - C

    The elk, or wapiti (Cervus canadensis), is one of the largest species of deer in the world and one of the largest mammals in North America and eastern Asia. In the deer family (Cervidae), only the moose, Alces alces (called an "elk" in Europe), is larger, and Cervus unicolor (the sambar deer) can rival the C. canadensis elk in size. Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants, leaves, and bark.

    Mountain goat

    The mountain goat is an introduced species within the park.

    Order: Artiodactyla, Family: Bovidae

    Occurrence: High peaks and meadows - CL, I

    The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. Despite its vernacular name, it is not a member of Capra, the genus of true goats. It resides at high elevations and is a sure-footed climber, often resting on rocky cliffs that predators cannot reach.

    Mule deer

    The black-tailed deer sub-species (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) is found in the park.

    Order: Artiodactyla, Family: Cervidae

    Occurrence: Open forests, meadows, often at high elevations - C

    The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. It gets its name from its large mule-like ears. Adult male mule deer are called bucks, adult females are called does, and young of both sexes are called fawns. The black-tailed deer is considered by some a distinct species though it is classified as a subspecies of the mule deer. Unlike its cousin, the white-tailed deer, mule deer are generally more associated with the land west of the Missouri River. The most noticeable differences between whitetails and mule deer are the color of their tails and configuration of their antlers. The mule deer's tail is black tipped.

    Northwestern wolf

    Although native to the park, the northwestern wolf was extirpated from the park in the 19th century.

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Canidae

    Occurrence: Coniferous forests - E

    Northwestern wolf is a subspecies of a gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus), often known simply as the wolf which is the largest wild member of the family Canidae. It is an ice age survivor originating during the Late Pleistocene around 300,000 years ago. DNA sequencing and genetic drift studies reaffirm that the gray wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Although certain aspects of this conclusion have been questioned, the main body of evidence confirms it. A number of other gray wolf subspecies have been identified, though the actual number of subspecies is still open to discussion. Gray wolves are typically apex predators in the ecosystems they occupy.

    Red fox

    The red fox is an introduced species within the park.

    Order: Carnivora, Family: Canidae

    Occurrence: Grasslands, open forest - R, I

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a small canid native to much of North America and Eurasia, as well as northern Africa. It is the most recognizable species of fox and in many areas it is referred to simply as "the fox". As its name suggests, its fur is predominantly reddish-brown, but there is a naturally occurring grey morph known as the “silver” fox. The red fox is by far the most widespread and abundant species of fox, found in almost every single habitat in the Northern Hemisphere, from the coastal marshes of United States, to the alpine tundras of Tibetan Plateau.

    Raccoons

    Order: Carnivora Family: Procyonidae

  • Raccoon, Procyon lotor, Open forests, stream bottoms - C
  • Badgers and weasels

    Order: Carnivora Family: Mustelidae

  • Fisher, Martes pennanti, coniferous forests, recently reintroduced following probable extirpation - R
  • American marten, Martes americana, coniferous forests - R
  • American mink, Neovison vison, creek and lake edges - C
  • North American river otter, Lontra canadensis, rivers, lakes, ponds - C
  • Long-tailed weasel, Mustela frenata, open forests and meadows - C
  • Short-tailed weasel, Mustela erminea, coniferous forests and meadows - C, EN
  • Skunks

    Order: Carnivora Family: Mephitidae

  • Striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis, open forests and grasslands - C
  • Western spotted skunk, Spilogale gracilis, mixed woodlands, open areas, and farmlands - CL
  • Hares and rabbits

    Order: Lagomorpha Family: Leporidae

  • Snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus, coniferous forests - C
  • Shrews

    Order: Soricomorpha Family: Soricidae

  • Dusky shrew, Sorex monticolus, higher elevation coniferous forests - C
  • Masked shrew, Sorex cinereus, coniferous forests, meadows, ponds and stream edges - R
  • American water shrew, Sorex palustris, stream edges - U
  • Vagrant shrew, Sorex vagrans, moist forests and grasslands, marsh and stream edges - C
  • Trowbridge's shrew, Sorex trowbridgii, - C
  • Pacific marsh shrew, Sorex bendirii, near aquatic habitats - C
  • Moles

    Order: Soricomorpha Family: Talpidae

  • American shrew-mole, Neurotrichus gibbsii, damp forested or bushy areas - CL
  • Townsend's mole, Scapanus townsendii, open lowland and wooded areas - A
  • Snow mole, Scapanus townsendii olympicus is one subspecies found in the park -- CL, EN
  • Coast mole, Scapanus orarius, forested and open areas with moist soils - C
  • Beaver

    Order: Rodentia Family: Castoridae

  • Beaver, Castor canadensis, ponds, streams, lakes - CL
  • Family: Aplodontiidae

  • Mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa, deciduous and coniferous forests - C
  • Squirrels

    Order: Rodentia Family: Sciuridae

  • Douglas squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasi, coniferous forests - C
  • Townsend's chipmunk, Neotamias townsendii, open forests, brushy, rocky areas - C
  • Olympic chipmunk, Tamias amoenus caunnus, open forests, brushy, rocky areas - CL, EN
  • Northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, coniferous forests, nocturnal - C
  • Olympic marmot, Marmota olympus, alpine and subalpine meadows and talus slopes - CL, EN
  • Pocket gophers

    Order: Rodentia Family: Geomyidae

  • Mazama pocket gopher, Thomomys mazama, meadows - U, EN
  • Rats

    Order: Rodentia Family: Muridae

  • Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, CL, I
  • Black rat, Rattus rattus, CL, I
  • Mice

    Order: Rodentia Family: Cricetidae

  • Keen's mouse, Peromyscus keeni, forests, grasslands, alpine meadows - C
  • Jumping mice

    Order: Rodentia Family: Dipodidae

  • Pacific jumping mouse, Zapus trinotatus, grasslands, swamps - C
  • Muskrats, voles and woodrats

    Order: Rodentia Family: Cricetidae

  • Muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus, streams, lakes, marshy areas - CL
  • Western heather vole, Phenacomys intermedius, coniferous forests, alpine meadows - CL
  • Long-tailed vole, Microtus longicaudus, coniferous forests, grasslands - U
  • Southern red-backed vole, Clethrionomys gapperi, coniferous forests - C
  • Townsend's vole Microtus townsendii, grasslands - C
  • Bushy-tailed woodrat, Neotoma cinerea, rocky areas, old buildings - CL
  • Porcupines

    Order: Rodentia Family: Erethizontidae

  • North American porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, coniferous forests, R
  • Bats

    Order: Chiroptera Family: Vespertilionidae

  • Big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, coniferous forests, often around buildings, caves - U
  • Hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, coniferous forests, mostly nocturnal - U
  • Little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, coniferous forests, often around buildings, caves, nocturnal - U
  • Long-eared bat, Myotis evotis, coniferous forests, meadows, nocturnal - R
  • Long-legged bat, Myotis volans, coniferous forests, meadows, nocturnal - R
  • Silver-haired bat, Lasionycteris noctivagans, coniferous forests, meadows, nocturnal - U
  • Yuma myotis, Myotis yumanensis - C
  • Keen's myotis, Myotis keenii - R
  • California myotis, Myotis californicus - U
  • Fringed myotis, Myotis thysanodes - U
  • Townsend's big-eared bat, Corynorhinus townsendii - R
  • Marine mammals

    The coastal portion of Olympic National Park contains 73 miles (117 km) of Pacific Ocean shoreline and abuts the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. The following marine mammals are found in the waters off the beaches of the coastal section of the park.

  • Sea otter, Enhydra lutris - CL
  • River otter, Lutra canadensis - C (rocky intertidal)
  • Harbor seal, Phoca vitulina - A
  • Northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus - O
  • Steller's sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus - U
  • California sea lion, Zalophus californianus - U
  • Northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris - R
  • Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus - C (spring and fall)
  • Minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata - U (summer and fall)
  • Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae - U (fall)
  • Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena - CL (summer)
  • Orca or killer whale, Orcinus orca - U (summer and fall)
  • Dall’s porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli - U
  • Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens - U
  • References

    Mammals of Olympic National Park Wikipedia


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