Sultan (/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان sulṭān, [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a noble title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate.
The dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah).
A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title used legally used for some (not all) Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts. But Turkish and Ottoman Turkish also uses sultan for imperial lady, because Turkish grammar uses the same words for women and men. However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall (in French, similar constructions of the type madame la maréchale are quite common). The female leaders in Muslim history are correctly known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu is styled as the "panguian" and sultan's chief wife in many sultanate in Indonesia and Malaysia is known as "permaisuri" or "Tunku Ampuan", "Raja Perempuan" or "Tengku Ampuan". Special case in Brunei, the Queen Consort is known as Raja Isteri with suffix Pengiran Anak if the queen consort is a royal princess.
Among those modern hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law, the term is gradually being replaced by king (i.e. malik in Arabic) and Datu in Maranao.
These are generally secondary titles, either lofty 'poetry' or with a message, e.g.:Mani Sultan = Manney Sultan (meaning the "Pearl of Rulers" or "Honoured Monarch") - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja of TravancoreSultan of Sultans - the sultanic equivalent of the style King of KingsCertain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation; e.g., Sultan ul-Mujahidin as champion of jihad (to strive and to struggle in the name of Allah).Sultanic Highness - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style exclusively used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt (a British protectorate since 1914), who bore it with their primary titles of Prince (Amir; Turkish: Prens) or Princess, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life, even after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922, when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king (malik Misr, considered a promotion) were granted the title Sahib(at) us-Sumuw al-Malaki, or Royal Highness.
Anatolia and Central AsiaGhaznavid SultanateSultans of Great SeljukSeljuk Sultanate of RumSultans (becoming padishahs) of the Ottoman Empire, the OsmanliElisu Sultanate and a few others. A Sultan ranked below a Khan.
Levant and Arabian peninsulain Syria:Ayyubid SultansMamluk Sultansin present-day Yemen, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate and South Arabia:in present-day Saudi Arabia :Sultans of NejdSultans of the HejazOman – Sultan of Oman (authentically referred to as Hami), on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 (assumed the formal title of Sultan in 1861)in Algeria: sultanate of Tuggurtin Egypt:Ayyubid SultansMamluk Sultansin Morocco, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik (king) on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful)in Sudan:DarfurDar al-MasalitDar QimrFunj Sultanate of Sinnar (Sennar)Kordofanin Chad:Bag(u)irmi (main native title: Mbang)Wada'i (main native title: Kolak), successor state to BirguDar Sila (actually a wandering group of tribes)Adal Sultanate, in northwestern Somalia, southern Djibouti, and the Somali, Oromia, Harari, and Afar regions of EthiopiaAjuran Sultanate, in southern Somalia and eastern EthiopiaMajeerteen Sultanate (Migiurtinia), in northern SomaliaMarehan Sultanate, in northern SomaliaSultanate of the Geledi, in southern SomaliaSultanate of Aussa, in northeastern EthiopiaSultanate of Harar, in eastern EthiopiaSultanate of Hobyo, in SomaliaSultanate of Ifat, in eastern EthiopiaSultanate of Mogadishu, in south-central SomaliaSultanate of Showa, in central EthiopiaWarsangali Sultanate, in northern SomaliaBimal Sultanate of Merca south eastrern Somalia
Southeast Africa and Indian OceanAngoche Sultanate, on the Mozambiquan coast (also several neighbouring sheikdoms)various sultans on the Comoros; however on the Comoros, the normally used styles were alternative native titles, including Mfalme, Phany or Jambé and the 'hegemonic' title Sultani tibethe Maore (or Mawuti) sultanate on Mayotte (separated from the Comoros)
This was the alternative native style (apparently derived from malik, the Arabic word for "king") of the sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate, in Tanganyika (presently the continental part of Tanzania).Sultanate of Zanzibar: two incumbents (from the Omani dynasty) since the de facto separation from Oman in 1806, the last assumed the title Sultan in 1861 at the formal separation under British auspices; since 1964 union with Tanganyika (part of Tanzania)
Mfalume is the (Ki)Swahili title of various native Muslim rulers, generally rendered in Arabic and in western languages as Sultan:in Kenya:Pate on part of Pate island (capital also named Pate), in the Lamu ArchipelagoWituland, came under German, then British protectoratein Tanganyika (presently part of Tanzania): of Hadimu, on the island of that name; also styled Jembe
This was the native ruler's title in the Tanzanian state of Uhehe a female sultan
West and Central AfricaIn Cameroon:Bamoun (Bamun, 17th century, founded uniting 17 chieftaincies) 1918 becomes a sultanate, but in 1923 re-divided into the 17 original chieftaincies.Bibemi, founded in 1770 - initially styled lamidoMandara Sultanate, since 1715 (replacing Wandala kingdom); 1902 Part of CameroonRey Bouba Sultanate founded 1804in the Central African Republic:Bangassou created c.1878; 14 June 1890 under Congo Free State protectorate, 1894 under French protectorate; 1917 Sultanate suppressed by the French.Dar al-Kuti - French protectorate since December 12, 1897Rafai c.1875 Sultanate, 8 April 1892 under Congo Free State protectorate, March 31, 1909 under French protectorate; 1939 Sultanate suppressedZemio c.1872 established; December 11, 1894 under Congo Free State protectorate, April 12, 1909 under French protectorate; 1923 Sultanate suppressedin Niger: Arabic alternative title of the following autochthonous rulers:the Amenokal of the Aïr confederation of Tuaregthe Sarkin Damagaram since the 1731 founding of the Sultanate of Damagaram (Zinder)in Nigeria most monarchies previously had native titles, but when most in the north converted to Islam, Muslim titles were adopted, such as emir and sometimes sultan.in Borno (alongside the native title Mai)since 1817 in Sokoto, the suzerain (also styled Amir al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi) of all Fulbe jihad states and premier traditional Muslim leader in the Sahel (according to some once a caliph)Bahmani Sultanatethe Deccan sultanates: Berar, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda and AhmednagarDelhi Sultanate: several dynasties, the last (Mughal) became imperial Padshah-i HindBengal SultanateSultanate of GujaratSultanate of JaunpurSultanate of KandeshSultanate of MalwaSultanate of Mysore, Tipu SultanSultanate of Lakshadweep and Cannanore, Arakkal KingdomSultanate of Maldives
Southeast and East Asia
In Indonesia (formerly in the Dutch East Indies):On KalimantanSultanate of BanjarSultanate of BerauSultanate of BulunganSultanate of Gunung TaburSultanate of KubuSultanate of Kutai KartanegaraSultanate of MempawahSultanate of PaserSultanate of PontianakSultanate of SambaliungSultanate of SambasOn SulawesiSultanate of ButonSultanate of BoneSultanate of GowaSultanate of LuwuSultanate of SoppengSultanate of WajoOn JavaSultanate of BantenSultanate of Cirebon - the rulers in three of the four palaces (kraton), from which divided Cirebon was ruled: Kraton Kasepuhan, Kraton Kanoman and Kraton Kacirebonan (only in Kraton Kaprabonan was the ruler's title Panembahan)Sultanate of DemakSultanate of PajangSumedang Larang KingdomSultanate of Mataram (was divided into two kingdoms: the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Sunanan Surakarta)Sultanate of Yogyakarta (The Divine Sultanate of which its ruler Sri Sultan Hamengkubowono is considered a divine being, a half God)Sunanate of Surakarta (susuhunan, a high-ranked monarch, equivalent to emperor)Sultanate of Jayakarta (also known as Sunda Kelapa; modern-day Jakarta)On Madura island: PamekasanIn the Maluku IslandsSultanate of Iha (Saparua)Sultanate of Honimoa/ Siri Sori (Saparua)Sultanate of Huamual (West Seram)Sultanate of Tanah Hitu (Ambon)Sultanate of TernateSultanate of TidoreSultanate of BacanSultanate of JiloloSultanate of Loloda, later occupied by TernateIn the Nusa TenggaraSultanate of Bima on Sumbawa islandIn the Riau archipelago: sultanate of Lingga-Riau by secession in 1818 under the expelled sultan of Johore (on Malaya) Sultan Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan MahmudIn SumatraSultanate of Aceh (full style Sultan Berdaulat Zillullah fil-Alam), which had many vassal statesSultanate of AsahanAwak Sungai, established 17th century at the split in four of Minangkabau, in 1816 extinguished by Netherlands East Indies colonial governmentSultanate of Deli since 1814, earlier Aceh's vassal as AruSultanate of IndragiriSultanate of Langkat since 1817 (previous style Raja)Sultanate of Palembang (Darussalam), also holding the higher title of SusuhunanSultanate of PagaruyungSultanate of PelalawanSultanate of PerlakSultanate of Riau-LinggaSultanate of Samudera PasaiSultanate of SerdangSultanate of Siak Sri Inderapura
In Malaysia:In Peninsular Malaysia, where all nine of the country's present sultanates are located:Sultanate of MalaccaSultanate of JohorSultanate of KedahSultanate of KelantanSultanate of PahangSultanate of PerakSultanate of SelangorSultanate of TerengganuFurthermore, the ruler of Luak Jelebu, one of the constitutive states of the Negeri Sembilan confederation, had the style Sultan in addition to his principal title Undang Luak Jelebu.
In Brunei:Sultan of Brunei, Brunei (on Borneo island)
In China:Dali, Yunnan, capital of the short-lived Panthay RebellionFurthermore, the Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims) of Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State", a major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province) is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan.
In the Philippines:Sultanate of BuayanSultanate of MaguindanaoSultanate of Sulu (Sulu, Basilan, Palawan and Tawi-Tawi islands and part of eastern Sabah on North Borneo)Sultanate of Ranaw (Sultan ko Pat a Pangampong a Ranao)
In Thailand:Sultanate of PataniSultanate of SinggoraBruneiIndonesia – Sultan of Yogyakarta Special Region is governor of that provinceMalaysiaSultan is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states. The federal head of state the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, is elected (de facto rotated) for five years by and among the hereditary state rulers, but is usually styled "king" in foreign countries; political power, however, lies with the prime minister. See also: Malay titlesOman, an Arabian nation, formerly sultanate of Muscat and Oman
In some parts of the Middle East and North Africa, there still exist regional sultans or people who are descendants of sultans and who are styled as such.
Princely and aristocratic titles
By the beginning of the 16th century, the title sultan was carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty and was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known (notably khatun for women and bey for men). This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative.
Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but Ottomans themselves used "padişah" (emperor) or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler. The emperor's formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "khan" (for example, Sultan Suleiman Khan). In formal address, the sultan's children were also entitled "sultan", with imperial princes (Şehzade) carrying the title before their given name, with imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan, son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Like imperial princesses, living mother and main consort of reigning sultan also carried the title after their given names, for example, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, Suleiman's mother and first valide sultan, and Hürrem Sultan, Suleiman's chief consort and first haseki sultan. The evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women, especially between Sultanate of Women, as the position of main consort eroded over the course of 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", which replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "khatun". Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title "sultan".
In Kazakh Khanate a Sultan was a lord from the ruling dynasty (a direct descendants of Genghis Khan) elected by clans, i.e. a kind of princes. The best of sultans was elected as khan by people at Kurultai. See ru:Казахские султаны
In a number of post-caliphal states under Mongol or Turkic rule, there was a feudal type of military hierarchy. These administrations were often decimal (mainly in larger empires), using originally princely titles such as khan, malik, amir as mere rank denominations.
In the Persian empire, the rank of sultan was roughly equivalent to that of a modern-day captain in the West; socially in the fifth-rank class, styled 'Ali Jah.