The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that have been dated to the 1st century BC. This settlement was built by a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle).
The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brythonic language of Iron Age Britain's Celtic inhabitants as Lindon "The Pool", presumably referring to Brayford Pool (compare the etymology of the name Dublin, from the Gaelic dubh linn "black pool"). The extent of this original settlement is unknown as its remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins and modern Lincoln.
The Romans conquered this part of Britain in AD 48 and shortly afterwards built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural lake formed by the widening of the River Witham (the modern day Brayford Pool) and at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road (A46). The Celtic name Lindon was subsequently Latinised to Lindum and given the title Colonia when it was converted into a settlement for army veterans.
The conversion to a colonia was made when the legion moved on to York (Eboracum) in AD 71. Lindum colonia or more fully, Colonia Domitiana Lindensium, after its founder Domitian, was established within the walls of the hilltop fortress with the addition of an extension of about equal area, down the hillside to the waterside below.
It became a major flourishing settlement, accessible from the sea both through the River Trent and through the River Witham. On the basis of the patently corrupt list of British bishops who attended the 314 Council of Arles, the city is now often considered to have been the capital of the province of Flavia Caesariensis which was formed during the late-3rd century Diocletian Reforms. Subsequently, however, the town and its waterways fell into decline. By the close of the 5th century the city was largely deserted, although some occupation continued under a Praefectus Civitatis, for Saint Paulinus visited a man of this office in Lincoln in AD 629.
During this period the Latin name Lindum Colonia was shortened in Old English to become first Lindocolina, then Lincylene.
After the first destructive Viking raids, the city once again rose to some importance, with overseas trading connections. In Viking times Lincoln was a trading centre that issued coins from its own mint, by far the most important in Lincolnshire and by the end of the 10th century, comparable in output to the mint at York. After the establishment of the Danelaw in 886, Lincoln became one of the Five Boroughs in the East Midlands. Excavations at Flaxengate reveal that this area, deserted since Roman times, received new timber-framed buildings fronting a new street system in about 900. Lincoln experienced an unprecedented explosion in its economy with the settlement of the Danes. Like York, the Upper City seems to have been given over to purely administrative functions up to 850 or so, while the Lower City, running down the hill towards the River Witham, may have been largely deserted. By 950, however, the banks of the Witham were newly developed with the Lower City being resettled and the suburb of Wigford quickly emerging as a major trading centre. In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest, William I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the former Roman settlement, for the same strategic reasons and controlling the same road.
Construction of the first Lincoln Cathedral, within its close or walled precinct facing the castle, began when the see was removed from the quiet backwater of Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, and was completed in 1092; it was rebuilt after a fire but was destroyed by an unusual earthquake in 1185. The rebuilt Lincoln Minster, enlarged to the east at each rebuilding, was on a magnificent scale, its crossing tower crowned by a spire reputed to have been 525 ft (160 m) high, the highest in Europe. When completed the central of the three spires is widely accepted to have succeeded the Great Pyramids of Egypt as the tallest man-made structure in the world.
The Bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England: the Diocese of Lincoln, the largest in England, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by large estates.
When Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. One of only four surviving originals of the document is preserved in Lincoln Castle.
Among the most famous bishops of Lincoln were Robert Bloet, the magnificent justiciar to Henry I, Hugh of Avalon, the cathedral builder canonised as St Hugh of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, the 13th century intellectual, Henry Beaufort, chancellor of Henry V and Henry VI, Thomas Rotherham, a politician deeply involved in the Wars of the Roses, Philip Repyngdon, chaplain to Henry IV and defender of Wycliffe, and Thomas Wolsey, the lord chancellor of Henry VIII. Theologian William de Montibus was the head of the cathedral school and chancellor until his death in 1213.
The administrative centre was the Bishop's Palace, the third element in the central complex. When it was built in the late 12th century, the Bishop's Palace was one of the most important buildings in England. Built by Hugh of Lincoln, its East Hall range over a vaulted under-croft is the earliest surviving example of a roofed domestic hall. The chapel range and entrance tower were built by Bishop William of Alnwick, who modernised the palace in the 1430s. Both Henry VIII and James I were guests of bishops here; the palace was sacked by royalist troops during the civil war in 1648.
Following a recent break-in, some of the stained glass windows of the cathedral have had to be replaced.
During the Anarchy, in 1141 Lincoln was the site of a battle between King Stephen and the forces of Empress Matilda, led by her illegitimate halfbrother Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester. After fierce fighting in the city's streets, Stephen's forces were defeated. Stephen himself was captured and taken to Bristol.
By 1150, Lincoln was among the wealthiest towns in England. The basis of the economy was cloth and wool, exported to Flanders; Lincoln weavers had set up a guild in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the fine dyed 'scarlet' and 'green', the reputation of which was later enhanced by Robin Hood wearing woollens of Lincoln green. In the Guildhall that surmounts the city gate called the Stonebow, the ancient Council Chamber contains Lincoln's civic insignia, a particularly fine collection of civic regalia.
Outside the precincts of cathedral and castle, the old quarter clustered around the Bailgate, and down Steep Hill to the High Bridge, which bears half-timbered housing, with the upper storeys jutting out over the river. There are three ancient churches: St Mary le Wigford and St Peter at Gowts are both 11th century in origin and St Mary Magdalene, built in the late 13th century, is an unusual English dedication to the saint whose cult was coming greatly into vogue on the European continent at that time.
Lincoln was home to one of the five most important Jewish communities in England, well established before it was officially noted in 1154. In 1190, anti-Semitic riots that started in King's Lynn, Norfolk, spread to Lincoln; the Jewish community took refuge with royal officials, but their habitations were plundered. The so-called House of Aaron has a two-storey street frontage that is essentially 12th century and a nearby Jew's House likewise bears witness to the Jewish population. In 1255, the affair called 'The Libel of Lincoln' in which prominent Jews of Lincoln, accused of the ritual murder of a Christian boy ('Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln' in medieval folklore) were sent to the Tower of London and 18 were executed. The Jews were expelled en masse in 1290.
During the 13th century, Lincoln was the third largest city in England and was a favourite of more than one king. During the First Barons' War, it became caught up in the strife between the king and the rebel barons, who had allied with the French. It was here and at Dover that the French and Rebel army was defeated. In the aftermath of the battle, the town was pillaged for having sided with Prince Louis.
According to some historians, the city's fortunes began to decline during the 14th century, although this assertion has been disputed, it being argued that the city remained buoyant in both trade and communications well into the 15th century. Thus in 1409, the city was made a county in its own right known as the County of the City of Lincoln. Thereafter, various additional rights being conferred on the town by successive monarchs, including those of an assay town (which controlled metal manufacturing, for example). The oldest surviving secular drama in English, The Interlude of the Student and the Girl (c. 1300), may have originated from Lincoln.
Lincoln's coat of arms, not officially endorsed by the College of Arms, is believed to date from the 14th century. It is Argent on a cross gules a fleur-de-lis or. The cross is believed to be derived from the Diocese of Lincoln, and the fleur-de-lis is the symbol of the Virgin Mary, to whom the cathedral is dedicated. The motto is CIVITAS LINCOLNIA (Latin for City of Lincoln).
The Dissolution of the Monasteries exacerbated Lincoln's problems, cutting off its main source of diocesan income and drying up the network of patronage controlled by the bishop, with no fewer than seven monasteries closed within the city alone. A number of nearby abbeys were also closed, which led to further diminution of the region's political power. When the cathedral's great spire rotted and collapsed in 1549 and was not replaced, it was a significant symbol of Lincoln's economic and political decline. However, the comparative poverty of post-medieval Lincoln preserved pre-medieval structures that would probably have been lost under more prosperous conditions.
Between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces and changed hands several times. Many buildings were badly damaged. Lincoln now had no major industry and no easy access to the sea and was poorly situated. Thus while the rest of the country was beginning to prosper at the beginning of the 18th century, Lincoln suffered immensely, travellers often commenting on the state of what had essentially become a one-street town.
By the Georgian era, Lincoln's fortunes began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agricultural Revolution. The re-opening of the Foss Dyke canal allowed coal and other raw materials vital to industry to be more easily brought into the city.
As well as the economic growth of Lincoln during this era, the city boundaries expanded to include the West Common. To this day, an annual Beat the Boundaries walk takes place along the perimeter of the common.
Coupled with the arrival of the railway links, Lincoln boomed again during the Industrial Revolution, and several world-famous companies arose, such as Ruston's, Clayton's, Proctor's and William Foster's. Lincoln began to excel in heavy engineering, building locomotives, steam shovels and all manner of heavy machinery.
A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of the "Old Barracks" (now the Museum of Lincolnshire Life) in 1857; these were replaced by the "New Barracks" (now Sobraon Barracks) in 1890. Lincoln Drill Hall in Broadgate also opened in 1890.
Lincoln was hit by a major typhoid epidemic between November 1904 and August 1905 caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the River Witham. Over 1,000 people contracted the disease and fatalities totalled 131, including the man responsible for the city's water supply, Liam Kirk of Baker Crescent. Near the beginning of the epidemic, Dr. Alexander Cruickshank Houston installed a chlorine disinfection system just ahead of the poorly operating slow sand filter to kill the bacteria causing the epidemic. Chlorination of the water supply continued until 1911 when a new water supply was implemented. The Lincoln chlorination episode was one of the first uses of the chemical to disinfect a water supply. Westgate Water Tower was constructed to provide new water supplies to the city.
In the two world wars, Lincoln switched to war production. The first ever tanks were invented, designed and built in Lincoln by William Foster & Co. during the First World War and population growth provided more workers for even greater expansion. The tanks were tested on land now covered by Tritton Road (in the south-west suburbs of the city). During the Second World War, Lincoln produced a vast array of war goods, from tanks, aircraft, munitions and military vehicles.
Ruston & Hornsby produced diesel engines for ships and locomotives, then by teaming up with former colleagues of Frank Whittle and Power Jets Ltd, in the early 1950s, R & H (which became RGT) opened the first-ever production line to build gas turbine engines for land-based and sea-based energy production. Hugely successful, it was the largest single employer in the city, providing over 5,000 jobs in its factory and research facilities, making it a rich takeover target for industrial conglomerates. It was subsumed by English Electric in November 1966, which was then bought by GEC in 1968, with diesel engine production being transferred to the Ruston Diesels Division in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, at the former Vulcan Foundry, which was eventually bought by the German MAN Diesel (now MAN Diesel & Turbo) in June 2000.
It merged with Alstom of France in the late 1980s, then in 2003 was bought out by Siemens AG of Germany, now being called Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery. This also includes what is left of Napier Turbochargers. Plans were announced early in 2008 for the construction of a new plant just outside the city boundary at Teal Park, North Hykeham. Unfortunately Siemens made large scale redundancies and moved jobs to both Sweden and the Netherlands. The factory now employs 1300 people. R&H's former Beevor Foundry is now owned by Hoval Group who make industrial boilers (wood chip). The Aerospace Manufacturing Facility (AMF) at the Firth Road site was divested to ITP Engines UK, in January 2009 from Alstom Aerospace Ltd.
Lincoln's second largest private employer is James Dawson and Son, a belting and hose manufacturer founded in Lincoln in the late 19th century, which is located on the city's Tritton Road next to the University of Lincoln, it still operates using a coal-fired boiler. Dawson's became part of the Hull-based Fenner group in the late 1970s.
In the post-war years after 1945, new suburbs were built, but heavy industry declined towards the end of the 20th century, mimicking the wider economic profile of the United Kingdom. More people are nevertheless still employed today in Lincoln building gas turbines than anything else.
Lincoln's economy is based mainly on public administration, commerce, arable farming and tourism, with industrial relics like Ruston (now Siemens) still in existence. However, many of Lincoln's industrial giants have long ceased production in the city, leaving large empty industrial warehouse-like buildings. More recently, these buildings have become multi-occupant units, with the likes of Lincs FM radio station (in the Titanic Works) and LA Fitness gym taking up space. The main employment sectors in Lincoln are; public administration, education and health, which accounts for 34 per cent of the workforce. Distribution, restaurants and hotels account for 25 per cent of the workforce.
Like many other cities in Britain, Lincoln has developed a growing IT economy, with many e-commerce mail order companies setting up in or around the city. A plethora of other, more conventional small industrial businesses are located in and around Lincoln. One of the reasons for building the University of Lincoln was to increase inward investment and act as a springboard for small companies. The University's presence has also drawn many more licensed premises to the town centre around the Brayford Pool. A new small business unit next door to a university accommodation building, the Think Tank, opened in June 2009.
The Extra motorway services company is based on Castle Hill, with most new UK service areas being built by Swayfields who are the parent company. There are two main electronics companies in the town: Chelmsford-based e2V (formerly Associated Electrical Industries before 1961) is situated between Carholme Road (A57) and the Foss Dyke next-door to Carholme Golf Club; and Dynex Semiconductor (formerly Marconi Electronic Devices) is on Doddington Road (B1190) near the A46 bypass just inside the borough boundary, and near North Hykeham. Bifrangi, an Italian company, makes crankshafts for off-road vehicles (tractors), using a screw press; it is based at the former Tower Works formerly owned by Smith-Clayton Forge.
Lincoln is the functional hub of a wider area that encompasses several satellite settlements, such as Welton, Saxilby, Skellingthorpe and Washingborough. These villages look to Lincoln for most service and employment needs. Including them boosts the city's population to about 165,000. Lincoln is the main centre for jobs and facilities in Central Lincolnshire, and performs a wider regional role that extends to cover much of Lincolnshire and parts of Nottinghamshire. According to a document entitled "Central Lincolnshire Local Plan Core Strategy", Lincoln is within a "travel-to-work" area with a population of about 300,000.
Around the Tritton Road (B1003) trading estate, many new businesses have begun trading from large units with car parking. Lincoln has a choice of seven large national supermarkets (Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury, Waitrose, Morrisons, Aldi and Lidl). The St Mark's Square complex has Debenhams as its flagship store and an accompanying trading estate with well-known chain stores.
Another development, still in progress in 2016, is named Lindongate. It will include a new department store, shops, a hotel, flats and new transport facilities.
The city is a tourist centre and those who come do so to visit the numerous historic buildings including the cathedral, the castle, and the Medieval Bishop's Palace.
The Collection, of which the Usher Gallery is now a part, is an important attraction. Housed partly in a recently opened, purpose-built venue, it currently contains over 2,000,000 objects, and was one of the four finalists for the 2006 Gulbenkian Prize. Any material from official archaeological excavations in Lincolnshire is eventually deposited in The Collection so it is growing all the time.
Other attractions include the Museum of Lincolnshire Life and the Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory at the Lawn, adjacent to Lincoln Castle. Tranquil destinations close by include Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Country Park (including the Swanholme Lakes Local Nature Reserve), while noisier entertainment can be found at Waddington airfield, Scampton airfield (base of the RAF's Red Arrows jet aerobatic team), the County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit near Louth.
Because of its climate, Lincoln attracts many of its tourists in summer, but also on the first Thursday of December until the following Sunday when the Bailgate area of the city holds its annual Christmas Market in and around the Castle grounds. The market is based upon the traditional German-style Christmas market as found in several German cities, including Lincoln's 'twin town' Neustadt an der Weinstrasse. In 2010, for the first time in the history of the Christmas Market, the event was cancelled due to 'atrocious conditions' of heavy snowfall across Lincolnshire and most of the United Kingdom.
Lincoln is situated in a gap in the Lincoln Cliff (a major escarpment that runs north–south through Lindsey and Kesteven, in central Lincolnshire and rising to 200 feet (61 metres) in height). The River Witham flows through this gap. Lincoln is thus divided informally into two zones, known locally as "Uphill" and "Downhill", with Uphill at 72.8 metres (238.8 feet) above sea level in the area near Lincoln Cathedral, and Downhill at a height of 20.4 metres (66.9 feet) above sea level by the River Witham.
The uphill area comprises the northern part of the city, on top of the Lincoln Cliff (to the north of the gap). This area includes the historical quarter, including Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Castle and the Medieval Bishop's Palace, known locally as The Bail (although described in tourist promotional literature as the Cathedral Quarter). It also includes residential suburbs to the north and north-east. The downhill area comprises the city centre (located in the gap) and the suburbs to the south and south-west. The aptly named Steep Hill is a narrow, pedestrian street connecting the two (too steep for vehicular traffic). It passes through an archway known as the Stonebow.
This divide marks out Lincoln from many other historic cities in England and elsewhere in Europe.
The divide was also once an important class distinction, with Uphill more affluent and Downhill less so. This distinction dates from the time of the Norman conquest, when the religious and military elite occupied the hilltop. The construction and expansion of suburbs in both parts of the city since the mid-19th century has diluted this distinction. Nevertheless, Uphill residential property continues to fetch a premium, and is almost invariably referred to as such by local estate agents.
Like the rest of the British Isles, Lincoln has a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The nearest Met Office weather station is at RAF Waddington, about 4 miles (6 kilometres) to the south of the city centre. Temperature extremes since 1948 have ranged from as high as 34.8 °C (94.6 °F) in August 1990, to as low as −15.6 °C (3.9 °F) in February 1956. A now closed weather station still holds the record for the lowest daytime maximum temperature recorded in England in the month of December: −9.0 °C (15.8 °F) on 17 December 1981. The coldest temperature reported in recent years was −10.4 °C (13.3 °F) during December 2010, although another weather station, at Scampton, a similar distance north of the city centre, fell to −15.6 °C (3.9 °F), thus equalling Waddington's record low set in 1956.
Lincoln was once served by two railway stations, but since the closure of Lincoln St. Marks in 1985, only Lincoln Central remains. It has five platforms and a steady flow of trains and passengers. Trains run to destinations that include Newark-on-Trent, Nottingham, Grimsby and Peterborough. Virgin Trains East Coast runs a direct train service to London, calling at Newark, Peterborough and Stevenage. One service in each direction operates daily.
The £19-million A46 (north/west) bypass was opened in December 1985, with the (eastern) A15 bypass scheduled to commence construction in 2017, and the final southern part of the Lincoln ring road still not approved as at summer 2016.
The B1190 is an east-west road through Lincoln, starting from the Nottinghamshire-Lincolnshire boundary on the (Roman) Foss Dyke and A57 and finishing in the east at Thimbleby on the A158 near Horncastle. It originally terminated at the Canwick Road junction, then was extended to the west.
For many years the two main roads through Lincoln were the A46 and A15; there were no other main roads, and they both passed along the High Street. At the intersection of Guildhall Street and the High Street, these two roads met the A57, where it terminated. North of the city centre, the former route of the A15, Riseholme Road is the B1226, and that of the A46, Nettleham Road, is the B1182. The early northern inner ring-road, formed of Yarborough Road and Yarborough Crescent was originally the B1193, then an A road for many years, the A1102, from the mid-1930s and after the bypass was built, this distributor road became the B1273.
Lincoln has two higher education institutions, the older being Bishop Grosseteste University, which started life as a teacher training college linked to the Anglican Church in 1862. During the 1990s, the college branched out into new subject areas with a focus on the arts and drama. Bishop Grosseteste College, as it was, became a University College in 2006 when it was awarded taught degree powers, so that students graduate with degrees from BGUC and not the University of Leicester as previously. The college became a university in 2012. A graduation celebration takes place every year in Lincoln Cathedral. Bishop Grosseteste University has no links with the University of Lincoln.
The larger University of Lincoln started life as the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside in 1996, when the University of Humberside opened a Lincoln campus next to Brayford Pool, attracting additional students to the city. Lincoln School of Art & Design (which was Lincolnshire's main outlet for higher education) and Riseholme Agricultural College, which had previously been part of De Montfort University in Leicester, were absorbed into the University of Lincoln in 2001, and subsequently the Lincoln campus took priority over the Hull campus.
Most buildings were built after 2001. The University changed its name to the University of Lincoln in September 2002. In the 2005–06 academic year, 8,292 full-time undergraduates were studying at the university and by 2010–11, 11,900 students were registered as studying there.
Further education courses in Lincoln are provided by Lincoln College, which is the largest education institution in Lincolnshire, with 18,500 students, of whom 2,300 are full-time. There is also a specialist music college, Access To Music, currently with approximately 140 students, all full-time.
The school system in Lincoln is anomalous within Lincolnshire despite being part of the same local education authority (LEA), as most of Lincolnshire retained the grammar school system. Other areas near Lincoln, such as North Hykeham North Kesteven School, Branston and Cherry Willingham, also have comprehensive schools.
In 1952, William Farr School was founded in Welton, a nearby village. Lincoln itself had four single-sex grammar schools until September 1974.
The Priory Academy LSST converted to academy status in 2008 in turn establishing The Priory Federation of Academies. The Federation has three schools in Lincoln and one, The Priory Ruskin Academy, in Grantham. The Priory Witham Academy was formed when the federation absorbed Moorlands Infant School, Usher Junior School and Ancaster High School. The Priory City of Lincoln Academy was formed when the City of Lincoln Community College merged into the federation, with a new multimillion-pound campus and access to federation funding and networks.
The Lincolnshire LEA was ranked 32nd in the country based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least 5 A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (62.2% compared with the national average of 58.2%).
There are four special needs schools in Lincoln: Fortuna Primary School (5–11 years old), Sincil Sports College (11–16), St Christopher's School (3–16) and St Francis Community Special School (2–18). All provide specialist care for children and young people in and around the city.
The local newspaper is the Lincolnshire Echo, which was founded in 1894. Local radio stations are BBC Lincolnshire on 94.9FM, its commercial rival Lincs FM on 102.2FM and Lincoln City Radio on 103.6FM a community radio station catering primarily for people aged over 50 years. The Lincolnite is the online and mobile publication covering the greater Lincoln area. Local listeners can also tune into Siren FM, which broadcasts on 107.3FM from the University of Lincoln.
Student publication The Linc is available both online and in print and targets the University of Lincoln's growing student population.
BBC Look North have a bureau in Lincoln as an integral part of their coverage of Lincolnshire and East Yorkshire. There are three TV reporters based in Lincoln serving both BBC Look North and East Midlands Today. ITV News also hold a newsroom in Lincoln.
Lincoln has a professional football team, Lincoln City F.C., nicknamed 'The Imps', which plays at the Sincil Bank stadium on the southern edge of the city. The collapse of ITV Digital, which owed Lincoln City FC more than £100,000, in 2002 saw the team faced with bankruptcy but it was saved after a massive fund-raising venture by the fans that returned ownership of the club to them where it has remained since. The club was famously the first team to be relegated from the English Football League, when automatic relegation to the Football Conference was introduced from the 1986–87 season. Lincoln City regained its league place at the first attempt and has held onto it until the 2010–11 season when they were once again relegated to the Football Conference. Their most successful era was arguably in the early 1980s; they won promotion from the Fourth Division in 1981 and narrowly missed out on promotion to the Second Division in the two years that followed. More recently, the club reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup in 2017, beating several teams in the top two tiers of English football before being defeated by Arsenal.
Lincoln City were notably the first club managed by Graham Taylor, who managed the English national football team from 1990 to 1993. He was at Lincoln City from 1972 to 1977, during which time the club won promotion from the Fourth Division as champions in 1976 – The club also won the Football League Division Three North title on three separate occasions, a joint record.
Lincoln is also home to Lincoln United F.C, Lincoln Moorlands Railway F.C. and Lincoln Griffins Ladies F.C. Lincoln also hosts upcoming sports teams such as American Football team the Lincolnshire Bombers who play in the BAFA National Leagues, also the Lincolnshire Bombers Roller Girls, the Imposters Rollergirls and hosts Lincoln Rowing centre located on the River Witham. Lindum Hockey Club play in the North of the City. Since 1956 the city has played host to the Lincoln Grand Prix one-day cycle race, which for around 30 years or so has used a city-centre finishing circuit incorporating the challenging 1-in-6 cobbled ascent of Michaelgate. Since 2013 the City has also boasted its own Professional Wrestling promotion and training academy, Lincoln Fight Factory Wrestling.George Boole, mathematician and developer of Boolean logic, was born in Lincoln in 1815
William Byrd, composer and organist who worked in Lincoln Cathedral from 1563 to 1572
Penelope Fitzgerald, novelist and biographer, was born Penelope Mary Knox in the city in 1916.
Sir Francis Hill, local historian, mayor of Lincoln and Chancellor of the University of Nottingham, was born in Lincoln in 1899.
John Hurt (1940–2017), actor, attended Lincoln School.
Benjamin Lany, academic, royal chaplain and religious writer, was Bishop of Lincoln in 1663–67.
Neville Marriner (1924–2016), violinist, conductor, and founder of the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, was born in Lincoln and educated at Lincoln Grammar School.
William Pool, maritime inventor, worked in Lincoln in the 1820s and 1830s.
Steve Race, broadcaster, host of Radio 4's My Music 1967–93, was born in Lincoln and attended Lincoln School in 1932–39.
James Ward Usher, jeweller and philanthropist (1845–1921), spent his life in the city.
Sam Clucas, a footballer who currently plays for Hull City A. F. C., was born in Lincoln in 1990.
Lincoln is twinned with:Pathe Newsreel, 1950, Europes largest foundry opens in Lincoln
Pathe newsreel, 1934, about Lincoln
Pathe newsreel, 1933, Lincolnshire regiment parade
Pathe newsreel, 1933, Lincoln Handicap, racing in Lincoln