Polygamy is legal in 58 out of nearly 200 sovereign states, the vast majority of them being Muslim-majority countries situated in Africa and Asia. In most of these states, Polygyny is allowed and legally sanctioned. Polyandry is illegal in virtually every state in the world. The rest of the sovereign states do not recognize polygamous marriages.
AlgeriaCameroonChadCentral African RepublicRepublic of the CongoDjiboutiEgyptGabon: Both men and women can join in polygamous marriage with the other gender under Gabonese law. In practice, the right to multiple spouses is reserved for men only.The GambiaGuineaLibyaKenya: Polygyny legal under legislation passed in 2014.MaliMauritaniaMoroccoNigeria (only in some states)São Tomé and PríncipeSenegalSomaliaSouth SudanSudanSwazilandTogoTanzaniaUgandaZambiaAfghanistanBahrainBangladeshBhutanBruneiIndonesiaIranIraq (except for in Iraqi Kurdistan)JordanKuwaitLebanonMaldivesMyanmarOmanQatarPakistanSaudi ArabiaSri LankaSyria (except in Rojava)United Arab EmiratesYemenSolomon Islands
Note: These countries are included separately because they have specific legislation aimed only at Muslims.IndiaMalaysiaPhilippinesSingaporeSri LankaBeninCôte d'Ivoire: polygamy may be punishable by six months to three years imprisonment, or a fine of CFA 50,000 to CFA 500,000 (US$80 to US$800).Eritrea: Illegal since 1977, after 2015 polygamy is punishable with "a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 6 months and not more than 12 months, or a fine of 20,001 – 50,000 Nakfas."EthiopiaSeychellesTunisiaBotswanaLesothoLiberiaMalawiNamibiaNigerNigeria (only in some states): Recognized in all northern Sharia statesSierra LeoneSouth Africa: Recognized under customary law, and recognised for civil purposes in terms of the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act.ZimbabweAngolaBurkina FasoBurundiCabo VerdeDemocratic Republic of the CongoEquatorial GuineaGhanaGuinea-BissauMadagascarMauritiusMayotte (French territory) (not criminalized): Considered to be de facto illegal since a referendum sponsored by France in March 2009, forcing the island to comply with the French laws. However, pre-existing Muslim marriages are currently still valid.MozambiqueRwanda
All countries in the American continent forbid polygamy.Antigua and BarbudaBahamasBarbadosBelizeCanada: All forms of polygamy, and some informal multiple sexual relationships, are illegal under section 293 of the Criminal Code. bigamy is banned by section 290. However, for a long time, the law banning polygamy has not been efficient. As of January 2009, no person had been successfully prosecuted, i.e. convicted, in over sixty years. In 2009, two acquittals on polygamy charges, arising out of the town of Bountiful, British Columbia, prompted the government of British Columbia to pose a reference question to the Supreme Court of British Columbia (i.e., the superior trial court). The reference questions asked if criminalisation of polygamy was consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; and, if so, under what circumstances could people be legally punished for polygamy. In November 2011 the court released its 335 page long decision, which was that the criminal offence of polygamy is indeed constitutional, but that it should not be used to prosecute minors for having taken part of a polygamous marriage. Chief Justice Robert Bauman conceded that there is a conflict between this law and some civil right principles, but stated that there are other and "more important" issues which in this case take precedence. He wrote (as quoted by CBC news): "I have concluded that this case is essentially about harm. More specifically, Parliament's reasoned apprehension of harm arising out of the practice of polygamy. This includes harm to women, to children, to society and to the institution of monogamous marriage." Bauman argued that there are cases where the "wives" (who may be rather young; sometimes as young as 12 years) are abducted and abused, but because they believe in a faith promoting polygamy, they are not willing to bring complaints to the authorities. He reasons that these offences sometimes may be stopped by applying anti-polygamy legislation. The decision was welcomed by the Attorney General of British Columbia, and by a representative for the group Stop Polygamy in Canada. Likewise, according to the CBC news, some polyamorous groups in Canada expressed their relief, since Bauman had stated that the law shouldn't apply to them unless they decide to formalize their unions. Women's rights were central to decision.Costa RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaSt. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and The GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoUnited States: Polygamy is illegal in all 50 states. From about 1847 to 1857, in what is now the state of Utah, many Mormons practiced polygamy, which was widely condemned in the rest of the US. The US federal government threatened The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and made polygamy illegal through the enforcement of Acts of Congress such as the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act. The LDS Church formally outlawed the practice in 1890, in a document labeled 'The Manifesto'. Small splinter groups from the LDS Church, such as Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the Apostolic United Brethren still practice polygamy and awareness has been increased through television dramas such as Big Love and reality shows such as Sister Wives. Among American Muslims, a small minority of around 50,000 to 100,000 people are estimated to live in families with a husband maintaining an informal polygamous relationship.ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaEcuadorGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuelaArmeniaAzerbaijanChina: Polygamy is illegal under Marriage Law passed in 1980. This replaced a similar 1950 prohibition. In Hong Kong, polygamy ended with the passing of the Marriage Act of 1971.GeorgiaIsraelJapanKyrgyzstanMongoliaNorth KoreaSouth KoreaTaiwan: Polygamy is illegal by the 1930 ROC civil law.TajikistanTurkey: Polygamy was criminalized in 1926 with the adoption of the Turkish Civil Code, part of Atatürk's secularist reforms. Penalties for illegal polygamy are up to 5 years imprisonment. Turkey has long been known for its promotion of secularism, and has introduced measures establishing stricter bars against polygamy; these were passed by the ruling moderate Islamist AK Parti as well. In March 2009, AK Parti effectively banned polygamists from entering or living in the country.TurkmenistanUzbekistanVietnamPalestineCambodiaKazakhstanLaosNepal: Criminalized with sentence of one to three years and fine up to Rs 25,000. However, the second marriage is not annulled and once the completion of the sentence, the second wife carries equal footing as the first one. Even the government pension provided to the wife of the retired government employee after his death is split by the government.Russia: Factual polygamy and sexual relationships with several adult partners are not punishable in accordance with current revisions of Criminal Code of Russia and Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses. But multiple marriage can't be registered and officially recognised by Russian authorities because Family Code of Russia (section 14 and others) prohibits registration of marriage if one of person is in another registered marriage in Russia or another country. Polygamy is tolerated in predominantly Muslim republics such as Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Dagestan.ThailandTimor-LesteAlbaniaAndorraAustriaBelarusBelgiumBosnia and HerzegovinaBulgaria: Illegal and punishable with up to three years imprisonment.CroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinland: The official prosecutor is obliged to take all cases to a court where more two persons are married to each other and such relationships cease to exist after the court has decided it. Polygamic marriages performed abroad may be recognized only in narrow occasions, for instance in child custody matters.France: Civil marriage registry illegal.Germany: Illegal, punishable with fine or prison time up to three years.GreeceHungaryIcelandIrelandItalyKosovoLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMaltaMoldovaMonacoMontenegroNetherlands: Marriage between more than two individuals prohibited; however, a samenlevingscontract may include more than two partners. It legally accepts immigrants who are in such a union from a country where it is legal; e.g. if a man with two wives inmigrates to The Netherlands, all three will be legally recognized.NorwayPolandPortugalRomania: Bigamy, defined as marriage conducted by a person which is already married, is punishable by up to 2 years in prison or fine. Knowingly marrying a married person is punishable by up to 1 year in prison or by fine.Russian FederationSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSweden: Sweden recognizes polygamous marriages performed abroad, and all spouses are subsequently registered as spouses in the population register, but other spouses than the first spouse may not always be recognized in all occasions. Only the first spouse is recognized as a spouse when decisions are made on residence permits and social security. A Swede may have four spouses registered at most.Switzerland: Polygamy is illegal by law. But polygamous marriage conducted in another country may be accepted or rejected on a case-by-case basis.UkraineUnited Kingdom: Foreign polygamous marriages grant some welfare benefits only, but this is being phased out with the introduction of Universal Credit. Polygamy is treated as bigamy if a second marriage (or civil partnership) is contracted in the United Kingdom. No legal recognition is extended to spouses of subsequent marriages after the first marriage is recognised even when subsequent marriages are contracted abroad.Vatican City (Holy See)Australia: Polygamous marriages cannot be performed in Australia, but polygamous relationships are still common within some indigenous Australian communities. Polygamous marriages entered into abroad are recognised for limited purposes only.FijiKiribatiMarshall IslandsMicronesiaNauruNew Zealand: Polygamous marriages cannot be performed in New Zealand, but are permissible if they are legally performed in a country that permits polygamy.PalauPapua New GuineaSamoaTongaTuvaluVanuatu
In most countries, a person who marries a person while still being lawfully married to another commits bigamy. In all such cases, the second marriage is considered legally null and void. Besides the second and subsequent marriages being void, the bigamist is also liable to other penalties, which vary between jurisdictions.
The United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand permit some benefits for spouses of polygamous marriages performed in other countries. On a case by case basis Sweden recognizes polygamous marriages performed abroad but without giving residence or social security rights to other spouses. In Switzerland polygamous marriages conducted in another country may be accepted or rejected on a case-by-case basis. see § Europe. In the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, which allows simultaneous, additional marital rights and obligations for already married persons, prior to married persons becoming divorced from their existing spouse.
The vast majority of Muslim majority sovereign states recognize polygamous marriages: these states span from West Africa to Southeast Asia. Exceptions to the legality of polygamy in the Middle East occur in Israel, Turkey and Tunisia. The Palestinian territories — consisting of West Bank and Gaza Strip — permit polygamous unions for Muslim citizens of the territories.
Predominantly Christian nations usually do not allow polygamy, with a handful of exceptions such as the Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Zambia. Myanmar (formally known as Burma) is also the only predominately Buddhist nation to allow for civil polygamous marriages.
Almost a dozen countries that do not permit polygamous civil marriages recognize polygamous marriages under customary law. All the northern states in Nigeria governed by Islamic Sharia law recognize polygamous marriages. The autonomous regions of Somaliland and Puntland in northern Somalia also recognize polygamy, as does the country's Transitional Federal Government itself, since the country is governed by Sharia law. The recently independent country of Southern Sudan also recognizes polygamy.
Polyandry is de facto the norm in rural areas of Tibet, although it is illegal under Chinese family law. Polygamy continues in Bhutan in various forms as it has since ancient times. It is also found in parts of Nepal, even despite its formal illegality in the country.
Debates of legalizing polygamous marriages continue in Central Asian countries.
In 2000, the United Nations Human Rights Committee reported that polygamy violates the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), citing concerns that the lack of "equality of treatment with regard to the right to marry" meant that polygamy, restricted to polygyny in practice, violates the dignity of women and should be outlawed. Specifically, the reports to UN Committees have noted violations of the ICCPR due to these inequalities and reports to the General Assembly of the UN have recommended it be outlawed. Many Muslim states are not signatories of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Malaysia, Brunei, Oman, and South Sudan; therefore the UN treaty doesn't apply to these countries. It has been argued by the Department of Justice of Canada that polygyny is a violation of International Human Rights Law.
The tables below cover recent pieces of legislation that have been either debated, proposed or voted on; all of which concern a form of polygamous union.