Kulgam is located at 33°38'24" N 75°01'12" E. It has an average elevation of 1739 metres (5705 feet). Now it has become a separate district of Jammu and Kashmir. Kulgam is known for a religious saint (Sayed Simnan Sahib), who gave it the name "Kulgam" ("Kul" means "clan" in Sanskrit; "gram" in Sanskrit means "village"), because he lost something in the stream. Syed Simnan came from a place called Simnan in Iran. Travelling in the Kashmir valley, he came to Kulgam and liked the spot on a cliff overlooking the river Veshaw. He made Kulgam his permanent abode and was buried at the very spot which he had found fascinating. His 'aastan' is a draw from the population in and around Kulgam. The family of Syed Simnan is buried in a nearby village called Amun. Both the shrines have a masonry plinth and a wooden superstructure of deodars. He was known for his mystical powers and had devotees amongst Muslims as well as Hindus.
Shaikh Nur-ud-din also known as Nund Rishi, was a Kashmiri saint who belonged to the Rishi order and is also called Alamdar-e-Kashmir. Sheikh-ul-Alam as the patron saint of Kashmiris, revered by both Muslims and Hindus, was also born in a village called Kaimuh of the Kulgam distinct in 779 A.H. (AD 1377). The family of Shaikh Nur-ud-din is buried in Kaimuh. The Kulgam area is the birthplace of the ancestors of Allama Iqball (Supur village). Pandit Jawhar Lal Nehrus ancestors also are from Nadi Marag, a village in Kulgam. Ahrabal is a tourist spot in the district of Kulgam. It is a high waterfall, which is a source of the river Veshaw. Kulgam is known as the rice bowl of the valley and is known for its variety of fruit, especially apples.
This town is on the bank of river Veshaw across the spread of which are the foothills of the Pir Panchal mountains. Ahrabal has meadows and a waterfall. It has its origin from a spring called Kounser Naag located in the mountain range of peer panjaal.
Kulgam was in the news regarding the recent excavation of a new archaeological site in a nearby village called Kutbal which has yielded signs of having been home to a first-century civilization as some artifacts belonging to the period of Kushana kings appeared in Kulgam district. The plateau of Kutbal was once considered a scenic city in the Kushan period. The stamped tiles, which were excavated from the site, indicated the taste and living standard of the people of first century AD. These excavations speak of high culture, civic sense, social norms and art of the people living in first century AD.
The Kutbal site and its findings, which belong to the Kushana period, are more significant in view of several religious and artistic practices that had flourished then and had travelled to far off places in the subcontinent. Further excavation has been stopped due to prevailing political unrest in valley and is believed that further findings will reveal magnificent history of Kashmir.
The old Kulgam is situated on the banks of "Kaval'. The topography of Kulgam is . The lower portion is situated on the banks of Kaval, offshoot of river Vashiv. Almost all offices are functioning in this area. A scenic nallaha Vashiv irrigates the fertile lands of Kulgam area. Kulgam is called the granery of Kashmir Vally, but unfortunately this area is almost converted into agriculture to horticulture. Kulgam is famous being the first seat of missionaries of Islam as before Hazrat Sayeed Ali Hamdani, he sent Sayeed Mohmmad Hussain SImnani to Kashmir to preach for Islam. Sayeed Simnani chose Kulgam as a permanent seat. It is the place where Salar Sanz father of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din wali embraced Islam and was renamed Salar ud-din, Salar resides at Khee Jogipora Mohmad pora 7 kilometres (4 mi) from Kulgam and was married to Sadder, a daughter of Kota rajas of Daderkot. It was due to the efforts of sayeed simnani this marriage took place. Kulgam is an important place in south Kashmir. Kulgam connects, and its boundaries touch, all the three districts Shopian, Pulwama, and Anantnag of south Kashmir. The topography of Kulgam is scenic, and it is surrounded on all sides by small streams 'orchards; paddy farms and a scenic Kerwaha with a big portion of plan area and fields.
Kulgam assembly segment was first time represented by Ab. Kabir Wani and after him Mohammad Youqoob Bhat [advocate]. After Bhat it was represented by Kh Ab. Raziq. Mir of Jamat-i-Islami and then by a very good gentleman and pious person late Mr Gh. NabI Dar 'both Dar and Mir became the victims of the present insurgency. At present Kulgam is represented by CPIM veteran Mohammad Yousef Targami. Two notable personalities of the sub-continent, Sheikh Noor-ud-din Walis (birthplace) and Dr. Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal's grandfather, were from the Kulgam area. Kulgam has produced some veterans; one among them was moulana Abdul Aziz sheikh, who contested elections against Abdul Aziz zargar aiming not to win or represent the Noorabad kulgam but to create awareness among the masses of the area to fight against the Indian congress stalwart Abdul Aziz zargar, who was nominated by Indian congressmen at the behest of district administration to rule the segment- Noorabad. Moulana Abdul Aziz sheikh was praised for his work in matters of religion and development by politicians Ab.kabir wani (MLA), Mufti Mohd Sayeed(PDP PATRON JK) and Wali Mohd Itoo(MLA).
Kulgam is also known for its production of Rice as well as Apples. It is also called as the "Rice Bowl Of Kashmir".The main source of livelihood in the district is Agriculture & Horticulture. The low lying ares of Kulgam are very fertile for rice cultivation (known for best yield) so it is considered as 'Rice Bowl of Kashmir'. On the other hand, the upper ares are known for production of quality apple,Pears. Livestock and sheep rearing is a subsidiary occupation in rural population particularly in the upper areas.
The District Kulgam is covered by mighty & majestic Pir Panjal mountain range on the north west side acting as a massive topographical protection. The area is significantly covered in forestation.
Town Kulgam is situated at a distance of about 68 km from Srinagar and about 17 km from Anantnag. It has road connectivity with its neighboring districts like Shopian, Pulwama, Anantnag and Ramban etc. and Town besides being linked with far flung areas of the District by a dependable road network. Besides places of spiritual interest the district has tourist spots like ‘’Ahrabal water fall’’ on Veshev Nallah which is a place of sight-seeing in the extreme south-west of district Kulgam. , Kongwattan and Gurwattan ahead of Ahrabal, Charenbal and Nandimarg high land pastures are also places of tourist attraction apart from virgin meadows in the area from Kund to Ladigasan (ahead of Aherbal clefts). The District also has super abundance of natural water resources in the shape of various famous springs such as, Kounsernag ( ahead of Aherbal ), Waseknag (Kund), Khee Nag( Khee Jogipora), etc.
Kulgam District has 4 assembly constituencies:Noorabad (Abdul Majeed Padder PDP MLA)
Kulgam (Muhammad Yousuf Tarigami CPIM MLA)
Hum Shali Bugh (Abdul Majeed Larmi NC MLA)
Devsar (Mohammed Amin INC MLA)
Hum Shali Bugh J&K's 39th assembly segment has three municipal towns- Frisal, Yaripora and Qaimoh. Yaripora is an education and health block, while Qaimoh is agriculture as well as education and health blocks. Frisal has no administrative unit except a HSS School and PHC.
Kulgam has following roads connecting it to various assembly segments and with NH1A (Major District Roads)Anantnag-Ashmuji-Kulgam Main Road
Kulgam-Muhammad Pra - Shopian Road
NH1A Mirbazar to Kulgam via Akhran, Hablishi, Kilam & Pirpora(via kilam)
Kulgam-Damhal- Aharabal Road
District Hospital at Kulgam
Sub district hospitals at Yaripora and Damhall.
24x7 Emergency Hospital Qazigund [Medically some areas of Qazigund are under Kulgam]
PHCs at Frisal, Qaimoh, Bugam, Pahloo, Devsar, Behibagh Mohammad Pora, Katrsoo, Kilam, Akhran, GB Khalil, khuribata-pora etc.
Al-Rashid Convent School Kilam
Rose Garden School Kilam
Islamia Public School Kilam
Al Sarwat Convent School Khuribata-Pora
Alamdar Memorial institute
Baba Reshi Hanfiya High School Chawalgam (Private School)
British Public School Kanjikulla Yaripora
DH pora and Kilam (Devsar)Higher secondary school
English Medium Public High School Malipora ( Private High School)
F.B Institute (Private School) at Ashmuji
Geelani public school chawalgam
Govt high school sopat tangpora
Govt Higher secondary school Nehama kulgam
Govt. degree college at Kulgam
Govt. High School Behibagh
Govt. High School Mirhama Kulgam
Govt. Higher Secondary School (Boys), Yaripora
Govt. Higher Secondary School (Girls), Yaripora
GQ Public School, Upper Qaimoh Kulgam
Govt Middle School. Laisoo Kulgam
Haji Memorial Public school, Gudder Kulgam
Hanfiya high school at Frisal and yaripora.
Higher secondary schools at Kulgam, Damhal, Devsar, Qaimoh, Frisal, Munadguffan, Yaripora, Kilam, Wanpoh, khuribata-pora etc. :
Horizon Convent School Hum Shali Bugh Yaripora
International Islamic Research School (IIRS) Muhammad Pora Pvt.
Islamiya Simnaniya Higher Secondary School
Leeds convent school
Leeds Convent School Kulgam (Private School)
Msm Iqbal Educational Institute Yarikhah
Noor Study Circle Hablishi ( Private High School)
Public English Medium School Bhan
Red Jewels Educational Garden Brazloo (Private School)
Sky Lark Public School Yaripora
Sunshine National School Kulgam (Private School)
Maroofia Public English Medium School Srandoo (MPEMS Srandoo)
Govt High School Srandoo
Govt Girls Middle School Srandoo
Al-Hilal yateem trust, chawalgam
Govt. Polytechnic College, Kulgam
Industrial ITI, Beg Complex Hum Shali Bugh Yaripora
Industrial ITI, Chawalgam
Industrial ITI, KhuriBata-Pora Noorabad Kulgam
Govt. Degree college kilam
Govt Degree college kulgam