2.323 million (2001)
Jai Singh II
Nirmal Nahta (BJP)
| Amer Fort, City Palace - Jaipur, Jantar Mantar, Hawa Mahal, Nahargarh Fort|
University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur National University, Malaviya National Institute of Technology - Jaipur, Sawai ManSingh Medical College
Jaipur is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, after whom the city is named. The city today has a population of 3.1 million. Jaipur is known as the Pink City of India.
The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. The observatory, Jantar Mantar, is one of the World Heritage Sites. Included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Agra, Jaipur is an extremely popular tourist destination in Rajasthan and India.
The city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1688 to 1743. Initially, his capital was Dausa, which lies 51 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. The King consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the layout of Jaipur. Finally, under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, (initially an accounts-clerk in the Amber treasury, later promoted to the office of Chief Architect by the King) Jaipur came into existence on the classical principles of Vastu Shastra and similar classical treatises.
After waging battles with the Marathas, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II wanted to improve the security aspects of the city. Being a lover of astronomy, mathematics and astrophysics, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him in designing many buildings, including the Royal Palace in the centre of the city.
The construction of the city began in 1727. It took around four years to complete the major palaces, roads and square. The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the science of Indian Architecture. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contain the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates. For a time, during the rule of Sawai Ram Singh, the whole city was painted pink to welcome Edward, Prince of Wales. Today, avenues remain painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance. In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and the city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art (named Madarsa Hunree) founded in 1868. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls school (1867) opened during the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, the Marwaris; and the administrators Rawana rajput.
Maharaja Rishabh Bhawani Singh, a member of the erstwhile Maharaja family of Jaipur, died on 17 April 2011 at a private hospital in Gurgaon following multiple organ failure.
Jaipur has a semiarid climate under the Koppen climate classification, receiving over 650 millimetres (26 in) of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) and with little or no humidity though occasional cold waves lead to temperatures near freezing.
In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Deutsche Bank Group Jaipur, Genpact and Infosys BPO Ltd have their BPO and Infosys Ltd have their Software Development Centres in Jaipur. Mahindra SEZ located here is also one of the largest IT SEZ in India. Mahindra World City is a special economic zone that has the largest IT SEZ in the country. This is a joint venture of Rajasthan Govts RIICO and Mahindra group. Other than IT SEZ, this SEZ also has Light engineering zone, textile and other industry zones. The total area of the SEZ is approx. 3000 acres. The SEZ is likely to be the largest job provider for Jaipur once fully developed. The World Trade Park will also give a major boost to the citys economy. There is Gaurav Tower situated near World Trade Park which is also a major economic activity centre in the city.
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia.
The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNNs Worlds 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012.
Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amber Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort,Sri kali Temple, Sanganeri Gate and the Jaipur Zoo.
Jaipur has many important cultural sites. Cultural centres like Jawahar Kala Kendra and Ravindra Manch have helped promote the culture of the state of Rajasthan. Albert Hall Museum (Government Central Museum) hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. The Town Hall (Old Vidhan Sabha Bhawan) is proposed to be converted into a museum. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city.
Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti. Sweet dishes include Ghevar, Feeni, Gajak, Chauguni ke laddu, Moong Thal.