| United States|
3.4% (Dec 2014)
68.4 sq mi
Kirk Caldwell (D)
| Diamond Head, USS Arizona Memorial, Hanauma Bay, ?Iolani Palace, USS Missouri (BB-63)|
Honolulu ( or ) is the state capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu. Hawaii is a major tourist destination and Honolulu, situated on the island of Oahu, is the main gateway to Hawaii and a major gateway into the United States. The city is also a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture, cuisine, and traditions.
Honolulu is both the westernmost and the southernmost major American city. For statistical purposes, the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area commonly referred to as "City of Honolulu" (not to be confused with the "City and County") as a census county division (CCD). Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands and of the Pacific Ocean. The population of Honolulu CCD was 390,738 at the 2010 census, while the population of the consolidated city and county was 953,207.
Honolulu means "sheltered harbor" or "calm port." The old name is said to be Kou, a district roughly encompassing the area from Nuuanu Avenue to Alakea Street and from Hotel Street to Queen Street which is the heart of the present downtown district. The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian Islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan near the city on December 7, 1941.
Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts. These indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 11th century. However, after Kamehameha I conquered O?ahu in the Battle of Nu?uanu at Nu?uanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawai?i to Waikiki in 1804. His court relocated in 1809 to what is now downtown Honolulu. The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812.
In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor. More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.
In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrews Cathedral, ?Iolani Palace, and Ali?iolani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.
Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawai?is subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.
An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawai?i. Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikiki is the center of the tourism industry in Hawai?i, with thousands of hotel rooms. The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 68.4 square miles (177.2 km2). 60.5 square miles (156.7 km2) of it (88.44%) is land, and 7.9 square miles (20.5 km2) of it (11.56%) is water.
The closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena Lighthouse in California, at 2,045 nautical miles (3,787 km). (Nautical vessels require some additional distance to circumnavigate Makapu?u Point.) However, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are slightly closer to Honolulu than the mainland.
The largest city and airport in the Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu acts as a natural gateway to the islands large tourism industry, which brings millions of visitors and contributes $10 billion annually to the local economy. Honolulus location in the Pacific also makes it a large business and trading hub, particularly between the East and the West. Other important aspects of the citys economy include military defense, research and development, and manufacturing.