Rahul Sharma (Editor)


Updated on
Share on FacebookTweet on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Reddit
Gharana wwwsugatonagcomGharana20Table20gif

Tabla lucknow gharana hindustani music

In Hindustani music, a gharānā is a system of social organization linking musicians or dancers by lineage or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. A gharana also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology. This ideology sometimes changes substantially from one gharana to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music.


The word gharana comes from the Hindi word 'ghar' which is derived from Sanskrit for Griha, which means 'house'. It typically refers to the place where the musical ideology originated; for example, some of the gharanas well known for singing khyals are: Agra, Gwalior, Indore, Jaipur, Kirana, and Pattiala.

Khyal gharanas

The gharana system in khyal was rooted in the guru-shishya tradition and was similar to the Dhrupad Bani system. The gharana system was greatly influenced by the gradual fall of the Mughal Empire, which forced musicians to move from Delhi to princely states such as Gwalior, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Patiala and Rampur.

The gharanas have distinct styles of presenting the khyal — how much to emphasize and how to enunciate the words of the composition, when to sing the sthayi and antara, whether to sing an unmetered alap in the beginning, what kinds of improvisations to use, how much importance to give to the rhythmic aspect, and so on. However, an individual performer from a gharana may choose to borrow appealing stylistic aspects of another gharana in his or her gayaki. The prominent khyal gharanas are:

Dhrupad gharanas

  • Dagarvani Gharana, founded by the Dagar family
  • Bishnupur Gharana, founded by Kirtankars in West Bengal (13th Century)
  • Darbhanga Gharana, Darbhanga, Bihar - known for style known as Gaurhar Vani and also has good command on Khandar Vani
  • Bettiah gharana, founded in Bettiah, Bihar
  • Thumri gharanas

    In the Benares Thumri Gharana, the words in the text of a song are musically embellished to bring out their meaning, while the Lucknow gharana presents intricately embellished and delicate thumris that are explicit in their eroticism. The principal feature of the thumri of the Patiala gharana is its incorporation of the tappa from the Punjab region. It is with this tappa element that the Patiala gharana makes its impact, departing from the khyal-dominated Benaras thumris and the dance-oriented Lucknow thumris.

  • Benares Thumri Gharana, revived by Siddheshwari Devi, Rasoolan Bai, Badi Moti Bai, Mahadev Mishra, Girija Devi(mid-20th Century), founded by Kirtankars (13th-Century).
  • Patiala Thumri Gharana, founded by Ustad Fateh Ali Khan and Ustad Ali Baksh Khan in Patiala, Punjab (18th Century).
  • Tabla gharanas

    The following are the six widely accepted Tabla Gharanas. The prominent Tabla Gharanas are in bold (ordered based on chronology of founding):

  • Delhi gharana is the oldest of the Tabla Gharanas.
  • Ajrara gharana is an offshoot of and closely associated with the Delhi Gharana.
  • Lucknow gharanawas revived by the great personality DRISHTI the great RASTOGI,(Middle 20th century), Swapan Chaudhuri (late 20th Century), has rhythmic development through Kathak.Also Prof.Biswajit Bhattacharjee.(R.B.U.) (Specialist in KATHAKI Baaz) is direct disciple of Late Ustad Wazid Hussain Khalifa and completed his training under the able guidance of his father Pandit.Anil Bhattacharjee,The disciple of Wazid Hussain.Mrs.Nibedita Bhattacharjee[Bagchi]Daughter of Pt.Anil Bhattacharjee, Mr. Timir Roy Chowdhury ( Deciple of Khalifa Ustad Afaq Hussain Khan).
  • Benares gharana
  • Punjab gharana, popularized by Alla Rakha and Zakir Hussain, developed through its original Pakhawaj repertoire
  • Farukhabad gharana is the youngest accepted Tabla Gharana, and an offshoot of all of the Gharanas, featuring their main concepts
  • Wind and string instruments

  • Imdadkhani (Etawah) Gharana, founded by Imdad Khan (Sitar, Surbahar)
  • Maihar gharana, Maihar
  • Bishnupur gharana
  • Sufiana Gharana of Kashmir (Santoor)
  • Sitar gharanas

  • Imdadkhani gharana
  • Senia Gharana
  • Indore Gharana(Beenkar Gharana)
  • Maihar gharana
  • Jaipur Gharana
  • Bishanpur Gharana
  • Dance gharanas

    In Kathak performers today generally draw their lineage from three major schools of Kathak: the Jaipur gharana, the Lucknow gharana and the Banaras gharana (born in the courts of the Kachwaha Rajput kings, the Nawab of Oudh, and Varanasi respectively); there is also a less prominent (and later) Raigarh gharana which amalgamated technique from all three preceding gharanas but became famous for its own distinctive compositions.

    The Lucknow gharana remains the most popular throughout the country. However, in recent times the Jaipur gharana has caught up and today most performers throughout India perform techniques belonging to both styles. With amalgamation of the techniques and poses from other dance forms, the purity of the movements and gestures may be diluted or modified along with the contemporary trends.


    Gharana Wikipedia