Neha Patil (Editor)

Eupomatia

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Kingdom  Plantae
Clade  Magnoliids
Family  Eupomatiaceae Orb.
Higher classification  Eupomatiaceae
Clade  Angiosperms
Order  Magnoliales
Scientific name  Eupomatia
Rank  Genus
Eupomatia Evergreen or Deciduous Plants Copper Laurel Bolwarra Small
Similar  Eupomatia laurina, Eupomatia bennettii, Degeneriaceae, Magnoliales, Eupomatiaceae

Eupomatia is a genus of three flowering shrub species known to science, of the Australian continent ancient family Eupomatiaceae. The Eupomatiaceae have been recognised by most taxonomists and classified in the plant order Magnoliales. The three species of shrubs or small trees grow naturally in the rainforests and humid eucalypt forests of eastern Australia and New Guinea. The type species Eupomatia laurina was described in 1814 by Robert Brown.

Contents

Eupomatia Eupomatia bennetti photo lui weberI I Friends of Gondwana Rainforest

Description

Eupomatia wwwbiodiversityexplorerorgplantseupomatiaceae
  • Trees or subshrubs rhizomatous with soft starchy basal tubers, indumentum absent or present on the branches
  • Leaves distichous, simple, entire, penninerved, brochidodromous, petiolate, without stipules with secretory, aromatic idioblasts, stomata paracytic or actinocytic, only on the undersides of leaves
  • Stems with nodes (5-)7(-11)-lacunar, radii uni- or multicellular, medulla not septate
  • Plants hermaphrodites
  • Flowers perfect, cream or red and yellow, 30–40 mm in diameter, actinomorphic, spiral, epigynous, solitary, axillary or terminal, sometimes in fascicles of 2-3, with 1-2 fused bracts forming a calyptra Receptacle urceolate (shaped like an urn). Sepals and petals absent; stamens 20-100, tetrasporangiate, petaloids, gynostemium short, wide, anthers basifixed, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent, connectivum elongated; staminodes intrastaminal 40-80, petaloid, with glands in the blade and at the edge; stamens and staminodes basally fused forming a deciduous synandrium; carpels 13-70, syncarpous, fused for more than half of their length, forming a flattened apical structure; styles absent, stigmas flat, papillose; ovules 2-11 per carpel, anatropous, apotropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate; placentation sublaminar, in two rows along the ventral side of the carpel.
  • Fruit compound in fleshy berry
  • Seeds with endosperm fleshy to oily, ruminate, embryo straight, small, with two cotyledons
  • Pollen subglobose, grooved; exine atectate, psilate
  • Chromosomal number: n = 10, 2n = 20.
  • Ecology

    Eupomatia Factsheet Eupomatia laurina

    Protogynous and autocompatible flowers, with a reduction in selfing through herkogamy, diurnal synchronization of anthesis and the tendency of the same plant to not flower on two consecutive days. Anthesis lasts one or two days, at the height the flower behaves functionally as a female, showing its gynoecium and with open staminodes, while the stamens remain below the flower. The flower later behaves as a male with the intrastaminal staminodes folded inwards hiding the gynoecium and with erect stamens. The staminodes secrete an oily exudate and emit a fruity smell that attracts beetles, particularly of the genus Elleschodes (Curculionidae), that visit the flowers in both phases, in addition the synandria fall to the ground (cantharophily pollination). The fruit is sweet and aromatic and it is dispersed by birds and mammals (zoochory). The fruit is also eaten by humans.

    Eupomatia Eupomatia laurina Bolwarra

    The species are native to the tropical habitats of the rain forest, from sea level to an altitude of 1,300 m.

    Phytochemistry

    Plants contain unusual lignans and alkaloids (sampangine, eupolauridine, eupomatidine-1, liriodenine and lanuginosine, antimicrobials and antifungals) such as proanthocyanidins, cyanidin and flavonoids, in particular velutin. Iridoids, flavonols and ellagic acid are absent. Cyanogenesis absent.

    Uses

    The colourful wood of E. laurina is valued as is its fruit, which is used to make traditional Australian drinks, preserves and pastries.

    Systematic position

    Eupomatiaceae associates specifically with the family Annonaceae in the order Magnoliales from their botanical descriptions. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website considers Eupomatiaceae a sister group of the family Annonaceae in the terminal clade in the order’s evolution (see AP-website). The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the order Magnoliales in the clade magnoliids.

    Species

  • Eupomatia barbata Jessup – formally described in 2002
  • Commonly named northern small bolwarra. Endemic only in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Shrubs up to 1 m tall.
  • Eupomatia bennettii F. Muell. – formally described in 1858
  • Commonly named small bolwarra. Endemic only in north-eastern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Shrubs up to 1.4 m tall, little branching; leaves oblanceolate to oblong, 80-200 mm by 25-50 mm, petiole decurrent on the stem; flowers up to about 25 mm diameter, pedicels 5 mm; stamens 8-12 mm, yellow with the inside stained red; dark red staminodes; fruits obconic, 20-30 mm diameter, green turning yellow on ripening.
  • Eupomatia laurina R. Br. – formally described in 1814
  • Commonly named bolwarra or copper laurel. Grows naturally in New Guinea and eastern Australia. Shrubs or small trees up to 10 m tall, highly branched; leaves shiny, oblong-elliptical, 70-120 mm long by 20-50 mm wide, petiole non-decurrent of 3 mm; flowers 20 mm in diameter; stamens white to cream, off-white staminodes; fruits greenish-yellow of 15-20 mm diameter, brown when ripe. Pollinated only by the weevil Elleschodes hamiltonii.

    References

    Eupomatia Wikipedia


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