The EMD G16 is a diesel locomotive built by General Motors in the USA and under licence by Clyde Engineering in Australia and MACOSA in Spain. It has been used in Australia, Brazil, Egyptian Railways, Hong Kong, Israel Railways, Mexico, Spain, Yugoslav Railways and on the successor Croatian Railways, Slovenian Railways, Serbian Railways, Macedonian Railways, Railways of Republika Srpska, Kosovo Railways and Railways of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation.
The Victorian Railways bought six G16C locomotives locally built by Clyde Engineering, known as the X class. They are now operated by Pacific National.
In Brazil 41 locomotives were imported. The first eleven were introduced in 1962 and numbered 601–612, and the remaining thirty locomotives were imported in 1964–66. Thirty-seven locomotives still operating trains of the Vitória a Minas Railroad.
EMD supplied Egyptian Railways with 61 G16s in 1960–61 (ER numbers 3301–16) and 17 G16Ws in 1964–65 (ER numbers 3317–61).
During the Six-Day War Israel captured Egyptian Railways 3304, 3329 and 3361 which were appropriated into Israel Railways stock as numbers 161–163. All have now been withdrawn from service but 163 (formerly ER 3361) is preserved at the Israel Railway Museum.
In Hong Kong there are four locomotives imported for the Kowloon-Canton Railway. It would later be used by the MTR upon the merger. The first three were built by EMD in the USA, introduced in 1961 and numbered 56–58. The fourth was built by Clyde Engineering in Australia, introduced in 1966 and numbered 59. All were equipped with 16-567C engines and Co-Co wheel arrangements. 59 suffered a collision and was rebuilt with a 16-645E engine. The No.57 retired in 2009 and others still in use as of 2012.
In order to replace steam on the numerous light rail branches operated by the Nacionales de Mexico (NdeM), EMD export models G12 and G16 were obtained. A total of 24 G16 units were built by EMD for the NdeM, all equipped with dynamic brakes and introduced between 08/1958 and 07/1960, their running numbers being 7300 to 7323. The first 13 units (Nr. 7300 to 7312) had close clearance cabs, the last 11 units (Nr. 7313 to 7323) were delivered in 1960 and received a standard cab. Nr.7323 was pictured in 1963 with a standard cab, but appeared in 1974 with a close clearance cab, indicating that this unit was either rebuilt or more probably renumbered.
The RENFE Class 1900, later known as RENFE Class 319 were to the G16 design; 10 of the units were built at General Motors factory in USA and were single cabin machines, identical to a standard G16 with the exception of having Iberian gauge 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) wheelsets. A further 93 locomotives were built under license using the same components but as twin-cab machines with a different external appearance and internal arrangement of components.
The EMD G16 (JŽ series 661) was one of the most used diesel locomotives in Yugoslavia. The type is colloquially nicknamed "Kenedi" after the US President John F. Kennedy. After the breakup in 1991, the locomotives were passed on to successor states:
In Croatia the locomotive is classified HŽ series 2061. As of 2007, the series has been withdrawn from service. Six modified units of the series 2061 is the series 2043.
In Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Slovenia have all kept the JŽ-era designation series 661.
Today there are around 25 operational serise 661 with Serbian Railways. Those locomotives are used mostly on non-electrified railways, primarily to haul freight trains, but also the passenger trains.
Kosovo Railways operates three former JŽ series 661. A fourth locomotive (001) was renumbered but is out of service. They no longer carry a type designation, instead they were just numbered 001 to 004. They are used to haul coal and clay trains.
Locomotives 661-203 began a rebuilding program in 2008, undertaken by TŽV Gredelj (Croatia) in association with Electro-Motive Diesel; the bogies and traction motors were retained, but with a new frame and engine (EMD 8-710G3A). The locomotives were also converted to twin cab designs. The resulting new loco has EMD model code JT38CW-DC.