Sneha Girap

Arad, Romania

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Country  Romania
Area  46.18 km2
Mayor  Gheorghe Falca (Democratic Liberal Party)
Population  164,665 (2010)
Colleges and Universities  Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad, Vasile Goldis Western University of Arad

Arad ( Hungarian: ; Serbian: ) is the capital city of Arad County, historically situated in the regions of Crisana, and having recently extended on the left bank of the Mures river, in Banat region of western Romania.

Contents

Map of Arad, Romania

An important industrial center and transportation hub on the Mures River, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary and a training school for teachers. It had one of the first music conservatories in Europe. The city has a population of 159,704, making it the 12th largest city in Romania. Arad is the third largest city in the western part of the country, behind Timisoara and Oradea.

Arad romanian city romania cities towns transylvania oras


History

Arad, Romania in the past, History of Arad, Romania

Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at Soimos, Siria, and Dezna. The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Arad, Lugoj, Kacas, Beslek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683–1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.

The first Jew allowed to settle inside the city was Isac Elias in 1717. Eventually the Jewish population of Arad numbered over 10,000 people, more than 10% of the population, before the Second World War.

The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.

Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artur Gorgey.

The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Vilagos (now Siria, Romania), with the surrender of general Artur Gorgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot. Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.

Arad enjoyed great economic development in the 19th century. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Aradu Nou / Neu Arad / Ujarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mures river, is a neighborhood of Arad, to which it is connected by the Trajan bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.

In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans.

Economy

With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous towns in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments in industry and commerce, Arad has a booming economy.

Tourist attractions

  • The Fortified Town of Arad is one of the Transylvanian fotresses built in the Vauban star-shaped style, in the second half of the 18th century. It was used as a prison for the rebels led by Horia, Closca, and Crisan
  • Administrative Palace, built in 1872-74, renaissance architecture
  • Ioan Slavici Classical Theatre, built in 1874, neoclassical architecture, architect Anton Czigler
  • Neumann Palace, built in 1891, eclecticism
  • Judiciary Palace, built in 1892, eclecticism
  • Cenad Palace, built in 1894, eclecticism and neoclassical architecture
  • National Bank Palace, built in 1906, neoclassical architecture
  • Bohus Palace built in 1910, Vienna Secession. (For the first time in Arad, reinforced concrete was used)
  • Szantay Palace, built in 1911, Vienna Secession
  • Cultural Palace, built in 1913, neoclassical, gothic, renaissance architecture, and Corinthian capitals
  • Closca Street, Vienna Secession
  • Culture and education

    Arad, Romania Culture of Arad, Romania

    Arad has two universities, the private "Vasile Goldis" Western University, founded in 1990, and the public Aurel Vlaicu University founded in 1991. Also the "Spiru Haret" long-distance studies University has a branch in Arad.

    Arad, Romania Culture of Arad, Romania

    There are about two dozen high schools, some of the more famous being the Moise Nicoara National College, the Pedagogical High School "Dimitrie Tichindeal", "Elena Ghiba-Birta" College, the Economics College, the Technical College for Constructions and Environmental Protection Arad, and the Vasile Goldis theoretical lyceum. High schools in minority languages include the Hungarian Csiky Gergely College and the German Adam Muller-Guttenbrunn theoretical lyceum.

    Museums and exhibitions

  • Arad Museum Complex
  • History Department
  • Natural Sciences Department
  • Art Department
  • Vasile Goldis Memorial Museum
  • Doina and Barutu Arghezi Art Collection
  • Delta Gallery, with three major events of Arad artistic life: The International Biennial Drawing Saloon, The Biennial Small Sculpture Saloon, The Annual Art Saloon.
  • Alfa Gallery
  • Clio Gallery
  • Water Tower Gallery
  • Takacs Gallery
  • Carolas Gallery
  • Expo Arad International, The Exhibition Centre of the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of the County of Arad, the only purely exhibitional arena in western Romania and second only to Romexpo.
  • Flavored condom taste test zack arad


    References

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