| C23H40O3|| 364.56 g/mol|
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír Hanuš and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Its isolation from porcine brain and its structural elucidation and synthesis were described in 2001.
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether Wikipedia
Lumír Hanuš, Saleh Abu-Lafi, Ester Fride, Aviva Breuer, Zvi Vogel, Deborah E. Shalev, Irina Kustanovich, and Raphael Mechoulam found the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in 2000. The discovery was 100 gram of porcine brain, (approximately a single brain) was added to a mixture of 200 mL of chloroform and 200 mL of methanol and mixed in a laboratory blender for 2 minutes. 100 mL of Water was then added, and the mixing process continued for another minute. After this, the mixture was filtered. Two layers then formed and the layer of water-methanol was separated and evaporated when pressure was reduced. Synaptosomal membranes were prepared from 250g of the brains of Sabra male rats. A Hewlett Packard G 1800B GCD system that has a HP-5971 GC with electron ionization detector was used.
The production of the endocannabinoid is enhanced in normal, but not in endothelium-denuded rat aorta on reacting with carbachol, an parasympathomimetic drug. It potently reduces blood pressure in rats and may represent an endothelium-derived hypotension factor.
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether's structure can be determined by mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic sample of the endocannabinoid. It binds to the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (Ki = 21.2 ± 0.5 nM), which causes sedation, hypothermia, intestinal immobility, and mild antinociception in mice. The endocannabinoid exhibits Ki values of 21.2 nM and >3 µM at the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the peripheral cannabinoid receptors.
The presence of 2-AGE in body tissue is disputed. Although a research group from Teikyo University, Kanagawa, Japan could not detect it in the brains of mice, hamsters, guinea-pigs or pigs, two other research groups successfully detected it in animal tissues.
2-AGE binds with a Ki of 21 nM to the CB1 receptor and 480 nM to the CB2 receptor. It shows agonistic behaviour on both receptors and is a partial agonist for the TRPV1 channel. After binding to CB2 receptors it inhibits adenylate cyclase and stimulates ERK-MAPK and regulates calcium transients. In comparison to 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, noladin is metabolically more stable resulting in a longer half-life. It lowers Intraocular pressure, increases the uptake of GABA in the globus pallidus of rats and is neuroprotective by binding to and activation of PPARα.