In the 1970s in jazz, jazz become increasingly influenced by Latin jazz, combining rhythms from African and Latin American countries, often played on instruments such as conga, timbale, güiro, and claves, with jazz and classical harmonies played on typical jazz instruments (piano, double bass, etc.). Artists such as Chick Corea, John McLaughlin and Al Di Meola increasingly influenced the genre with jazz fusion, a hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion which was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments, and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix. All Music Guide states that "..until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate." However, "...as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved, and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avant-garde music, the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces."
Miles Davis made the breakthrough into fusion in the 1970s with his album Bitches Brew. Musicians who worked with Davis formed the four most influential fusion groups: Weather Report and Mahavishnu Orchestra emerged in 1971 and were soon followed by Return to Forever and The Headhunters. Although jazz purists protested the blend of jazz and rock, some of jazz's significant innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. Jazz fusion music often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, and complex chords and harmonies. In addition to using the electric instruments of rock, such as the electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano, and synthesizer keyboards, fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals, wah-wah pedals, and other effects used by 1970s-era rock bands. Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis, keyboardists Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, vibraphonist Gary Burton, drummer Tony Williams, violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, guitarists Larry Coryell, Al Di Meola, John McLaughlin and Frank Zappa, saxophonist Wayne Shorter, and bassists Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke. Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan where the band Casiopea released over thirty albums praising Jazz Fusion.
In the mid-1970s, jazz funk became popular, characterized by a strong back beat (groove), electrified sounds, and often, the presence of the first electronic analog synthesizers. The integration of Funk, Soul, and R&B music and styles into jazz resulted in the creation of a genre whose spectrum is indeed quite wide and ranges from strong jazz improvisation to soul, funk or disco with jazz arrangements, jazz riffs, and jazz solos, and sometimes soul vocals.
1970s jazz standards
1971 – "Spain". Jazz fusion composition by Chick Corea. First recorded on Return to Forever's Light as a Feather. The famous theme from the second movement of Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez is often used as an introduction for the song.
1972 – "Little Sunflower". Composed by Freddie Hubbard with lyrics by Al Jarreau.
1972 – "Red Clay". Jazz fusion composition by Freddie Hubbard.
1972 – "Waters of March" – 1972 bossa nova song by Antonio Carlos Jobim. Known in Portuguese as "Águas de Março".
1973 – "Chameleon". Jazz-funk composition by Herbie Hancock, Paul Jackson, Harvey Mason and Bennie Maupin, from Hancock's album Head Hunters.
1973 – "Mr. Magic". Written by Ralph MacDonald and William Salter.
1973 – "Send in the Clowns". Song by Stephen Sondheim from the musical A Little Night Music.
1974 – "Beauty and the Beast". Jazz fusion composition by Wayne Shorter, from the album Native Dancer.
1977 – "Birdland". Jazz fusion composition by Joe Zawinul. Originally released on Heavy Weather by Weather Report, it is instantly recognizable by bassist Jaco Pastorious' introduction using artificial harmonics, and notes sung by him by the end of the song. The tune was one of the biggest hits of the jazz fusion movement.
July: Lee Morgan records Live at the Lighthouse at the Lighthouse Café in Hermosa Beach, California
Johnny Hodges (July 25, 1906 – May 11)
Booker Ervin (October 31, 1930 – July 31)
Albert Ayler (July 13, 1936 – November 25)
Harald Johnsen (March 21), Norwegian upright-bassist
Simone (August 21), Norwegian singer
Tord Gustavsen (October 5), Norwegian pianist
Maria Kannegaard (October 6), Norwegian pianist
Louis Armstrong (August 4, 1901 - July 6), singer and trumpeter
Charlie Shavers (August 3, 1920 – July 8), trumpet player
Wynton Kelly (December 2, 1931 — April 12), pianist
Stian Carstensen (January 5), Norwegian accordionist and multi-instrumentalist