|Covid-19|January 1 – The Bristol and Exeter Railway, in England, is amalgamated into the Great Western Railway.
February 1 – The South Devon Railway, in England, is amalgamated into the Great Western Railway.
February 5 – The Wiesentalbahn, which eventually became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway, opens between Schopfheim and Zell im Wiesental.
March 1 – The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad reaches Pueblo, Colorado.
1 April - Great Northern Railway (Ireland) formed by a merger of the Irish North Western Railway, Northern Railway of Ireland and the Ulster Railway.
May 1 – The Midland Railway's Settle-Carlisle line in England is opened to passenger traffic.
June 20 – Passenger train service begins on the Cornwall Minerals Railway between Fowey and Newquay.
July 3 – The first railroad in China, the partially completed Woosung Road, begins operation, connecting north Shanghai with Jiangwan. The 2 ft 6 in (762 mm)-gauge line was built by American and British interests.
August 3 – The Woosung Road runs over and kills a Chinese soldier on the tracks. The British Consular Court will find the driver David Banks innocent of manslaughter, but the ensuing public outcry pressures both sides towards a Chinese purchase of the line.
September 1 – The official groundbreaking ceremony for the Miami Valley Railway is held in Cincinnati, Ohio.
September 5 – The first through train from San Francisco, California, arrives in Los Angeles, California, after traveling over the Southern Pacific Railroad's newly completed Tehachapi Loop.
October 16 – The Miami Valley Narrow Gauge Railway officially changes its name to Miami Valley Railway.
October 24 – The British minister Thomas Wade and the Chinese viceroy Shen Pao-chen sign "The Articles of Purchasing the Woosung Railway", which commits the Chinese to providing the railway's owners Tls. 285,000 in three installments over the course of the next year, after which they would acquire complete ownership and management of the line.
November 26 – The Ihrhove–Nieuweschans railway opens.
December 1 – The Woosung Road opens for traffic along the complete line between north Shanghai and Wusong.
December 4 – The Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits is founded in Brussels.
December 29 – Ashtabula River Railroad bridge disaster, Ashtabula, Ohio, United States: The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway Train No. 5, The Pacific Express, collapses the Ashtabula River bridge dropping eleven passenger cars into a fire started by the car stoves. Of the 159 people on board, 92 are killed and 64 injured, the worst train disaster in America to date.
The Atjeh Staats Spoorwegen, a narrow-gauge railway on Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies, opens between Banda Aceh and its port of Ulèë Lheuë.
The first regularly operated compound locomotives, a series of small 2-cylinder compound 0-4-2 tanks, are built to the design of Anatole Mallet by Schneider of Le Creusot for the Bayonne–Biarritz Railway, France.
Ohio Falls Car Manufacturing Company, later to become part of American Car and Foundry, is founded in Jeffersonville, Indiana.
May 27 – William Stanier, Chief mechanical engineer of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway 1932-1944 (d. 1965).
June 19 – Nigel Gresley, Chief mechanical engineer of the London and North Eastern Railway 1923-1941 (d. 1941).
June 2 – Charles Beyer, German-British steam locomotive manufacturer, co-founder of Beyer-Peacock (born 1813).
1876 in rail transport Wikipedia
This article lists events related to rail transport that occurred in 1876.