|Covid-19|January 2 – Britain captures Calcutta (part of the fighting in the Seven Years' War).
January 5 – Robert-François Damiens makes an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Louis XV of France. On March 28 Damiens is publicly executed by dismemberment, the last person in France to suffer this punishment.
March 14 – Seven Years' War: British Admiral Sir John Byng is executed by firing squad aboard HMS Monarch for breach of the Articles of War in failing to "do his utmost" at the Battle of Minorca (1756).
May 6 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Prague (1757): Frederick the Great defeats an Austrian army and begins to besiege the city.
June 18 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Kolín: Frederick is defeated by an Austrian army under Marshal Daun, forcing him to evacuate Bohemia.
June 23 – Battle of Plassey: 3,000 troops serving with the British East India Company under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj ud-Daulah through conspiracy, at Plassey in India marking the first victory of the East India Company upon India .
July 26 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Hastenbeck: An Anglo-Hanoverian army under the Duke of Cumberland is defeated by the French under Louis d'Estrées and forced out of Hanover.
August 3 – August 9 – French and Indian War: A French army under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm forces the English to surrender Fort William Henry. The French army's Indian allies slaughter the survivors for unclear reasons.
August 30 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf: A Prussian army under Hans von Lehwaldt is defeated by the Russian army of Marshal Stepan Apraksin.
September – 1757 Hajj caravan raid: Massive assault against the Hajj caravan by the Beni Sakhr tribe. The caravan was plundered and 20,000 pilgrims were killed or died as a result of the raid.
October 16 – Seven Years' War: Hungarian raiders plunder Berlin in Prussia.
October 30 – Osman III dies and is succeeded as Ottoman Sultan by Mustafa III.
November 5 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Rossbach: Frederick defeats the French-Imperial army under the Duc de Soubise and Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen, forcing the French to withdraw from Saxony.
November 22 – Seven Years' War – Battle of Breslau: An Austrian army under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine defeats the Prussian army of Wilhelm of Brunswick-Bevern and forces the Prussians behind the Oder.
Seven Years' War – Battle of Leuthen: Frederick defeats Prince Charles's Austrian army in what is generally considered the Prussian king's greatest tactical victory.
In Buddhist tradition Jigme Lingpa discovers the Longchen Nyingthig terma through a meditative vision which brought him to Boudhanath. The Longchen Nyingtig is a popular cycle of teachings in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
December 14 – Battle of Khresili: King Solomon I of Imereti defeats the Ottoman army and an allied faction of nobles in what is now western Georgia.
Conclusion of Nam tiến, the southward expansion of the territory of Vietnam into the Indochina Peninsula.
Robert Wood publishes The ruins of Balbec, otherwise Heliopolis in Coelosyria in English and French, making the ancient city of Baalbek in Syria known to the West.
Emanuel Swedenborg claims to have witnessed the Last Judgment occurring in the spiritual world.
January 16 – Richard Goodwin Keats, British admiral and Governor of Newfoundland (d. 1834)
February 3 – Joseph Forlenze, Italian ophthalmologist (d. 1833)
February 20 – John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, English philanthropist (d. 1834)
April 9 – Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, British admiral (d. 1833)
May 7 – Ludwig von Brauchitsch, Prussian general (d. 1827)
May 25 – Louis-Sébastien Lenormand, French chemist, physicist and inventor (d. 1837)
May 30 – Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1844)
June 18 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, Argentine leader (d. 1833)
June 22 – George Vancouver, British explorer (d. 1798)
July 20 – Garsevan Chavchavadze, Georgian diplomat and politician (d. 1811)
August 9 – Elizabeth Schuyler, wife of Alexander Hamilton and co-founder of New York's first orphanage (d. 1854)
August 9 – Thomas Telford, British engineer & architect (d. 1834)
August 23 – Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann, German actress (d. 1775)
September 6 – Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, French soldier and statesman (d. 1834)
October 9 – King Charles X of France (d. 1836)
October 21 – Pierre Augereau, Marshal of France and duc de Castiglione (d. 1816)
November 1 – Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor (d. 1822)
November 25 – Henry Brockholst Livingston, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1823)
November 28 – William Blake, English poet (d. 1827)
December 17 – Nathaniel Macon, American politician (d. 1837)
December 25 – Benjamin Pierce, American politician (d. 1839)
William Bradley, British naval officer and cartographer (d. 1833)
Agnes Ibbetson, English plant physiologist (d. 1823)
January 9 – Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, French scientist and man of letters (b. 1657)
January 19 – Thomas Ruddiman, Scottish classical scholar (b. 1664)
March 1 – Edward Moore, English writer (b. 1712)
March 8 – Thomas Blackwell, Scottish classical scholar (b. 1701)
March 12 – Giuseppe Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/painter (b. 1696)
March 14 – John Byng, British admiral (executed) (b. 1704)
March 27 – Johann Stamitz, Czech-born composer (b. 1717)
April 28 – Edmund Butcher, minister (b. 1822)
Maximilian Ulysses Count Browne, Austrian field marshal (b. 1705)
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, British politician (b. 1683)
Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin, Prussian field marshal (b. 1684)
July 23 – Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer (b. 1685)
August 28 – David Hartley, English philosopher (b. 1705)
October 17 – René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist (b. 1683)
October 25 – Antoine Augustin Calmet, French theologian (b. 1672)
October 30 – Osman III, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1699)
November 12 – Colley Cibber, English poet (b. 1671)
December 11 – Edmund Curll, English bookseller and publisher (b. 1675)
December 14 – Levan Abashidze, Georgian politician
date unknown - Mary Buckland, British paleontologist and marine biologist (b. 1797)
1757 (MDCCLVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1757th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 757th year of the 2nd millennium, the 57th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1757, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.