|Covid-19|January – A fire in Istanbul destroys 10,000 homes.
January 13 – The Treaty of Madrid between Spain and Portugal authorizes a larger Brazil than had the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, which originally established the boundaries of the Portuguese and Spanish territories in South America.
April – A second fire devastates Istanbul (see January). A third fire later in the year destroys a further 10,000 homes.
April 4 – A small earthquake hits Warrington, England.
March 20 – First number of Samuel Johnson's The Rambler appears.
May – Riots break out in Paris, France fueled by rumors of police abducting children.
July 31 – José I takes over the throne of Portugal from his deceased father, João V. King José Manuel appoints the Marquis of Pombal as his Chief Minister, who then strips the Inquisition of its power.
July 9 – Traveller Jonas Hanway leaves St. Petersburg to return home via Germany and the Netherlands. Later the same year, Hanway reputedly becomes the first Englishman to use an umbrella (a French fashion).
July 11 – Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire.
August 23 – A small earthquake hits Spalding, Lincolnshire, England.
September 30 – A small earthquake hits Northampton, England.
November 11 – A riot breaks out in Lhasa, Tibet, after the murder of the regent of Tibet.
November 18 – Westminster Bridge is officially opened in London.
Hannah Snell reveals her sex to her Royal Marines compatriots.
The King of Dahomey has income of 250,000 pounds from the overseas export of slaves.
Maruyama Okyo paints The Ghost of Oyuki.
Britain produces c. 2% of the entire world's output of industrial goods and the Industrial Revolution begins.
Galley slavery is abolished in Europe.
World population: 791,000,000
Northern America: 2,000,000
January 1 – Frederick Muhlenberg, first speaker of the United States House of Representatives (d. 1801)
January 24 – Nicolas Bergasse, French lawyer (d. 1832)
January 24 – Helen Gloag, slave Empress of Marrocco (d. 1790)
March 16 – Caroline Herschel, German astronomer (d. 1848)
April – Joanna Southcott, British religious fanatic (d. 1814)
April 17 – François de Neufchâteau, French statesman and intellectual figure (d. 1828)
May 2 – John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War (d. 1780)
May 31 – Karl August von Hardenberg, Prussian politician (d. 1822)
July 5 – Aimé Argand, Swiss physicist and inventor (d. 1803)
July 9 – Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde d'Orléans, last princess of Condé (d.1822)
July 25 – Henry Knox, military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, 1st United States Secretary of War (b. 1806)
August 18 – Antonio Salieri, Italian composer (d. 1825)
August 26 – Princess Marie Zéphyrine of France, infant sister of Louis XVI (d.1755)
September 26 – Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, British admiral (d. 1810)
October 31 – Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna, Portuguese painter and poet (d. 1839)
November 7 – Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg-Stolberg, German poet (d. 1819)
December 10 – Tipu Sultan, Sultan of Mysore (d. 1799)
December 23 – Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (d. 1827)
date unknown – Adwaita, Oldest tortoise (d. 2006) (alleged birth year; awaiting C-14 verification)
date unknown – Elizabeth Ryves, Irish writer and translator (d. 1797)
January 16 – Ivan Trubetskoy, Russian field marshal (b. 1667)
January 22 – Franz Xaver Josef von Unertl, Bavarian politician (b. 1675)
January 23 – Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Italian historian and scholar (b. 1672)
January 26 – Albert Schultens, Dutch philologist (b. 1686)
January 29 – Sophia Schröder, Swedish soprano (b. 1712)
February 8 – Aaron Hill, English writer (b. 1685)
May 3 – John Willison, Scottish minister and writer (b. 1680)
May 28 – Emperor Sakuramachi of Japan (b. 1720)
June 15 – Marguerite De Launay, Baronne Staal, French writer (b. 1684)
July 28 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (b. 1685)
July 31 – King John V of Portugal (b. 1689)
August 12 – Rachel Ruysch, Dutch painter (b. 1664)
September 15 – Charles Theodore Pachelbel, German composer (b. 1690)
October 16 – Sylvius Leopold Weiss, German composer and lutenist (b. 1687)
November 1 – Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (b. 1705)
December 1 – Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer (b. 1671)
1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1750th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 750th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1750, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Various sources, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, use the year 1750 as a baseline year for the end of the pre-industrial era.