|Covid-19|January 6 – Joseph, son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of the Romans.
January 7 – The first recorded full peal is rung, at St Sepulchre-without-Newgate in the City of London, marking a new era in change ringing.
January 14 – The clarinet is said to have been invented in Nuremberg, Germany.
February 3 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony issues the first paper money in North America.
May 20 – England passes the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of the deposed James II.
June 14 – King William III of England (William of Orange) lands in Ireland to confront James II.
June 8 – Siddi general Yadi Sakat razes the Mazagon Fort in Mumbai.
July 10 – Anglo-Dutch navy defeated by the French in the Battle of Beachy Head (also known as the Battle of Bévéziers), giving rise to fears of a Jacobite invasion of England.
July 11 – Battle of the Boyne, north of Dublin. King William III of England (William of Orange) defeats the deposed James II who returns to exile in France. The rebellion in Ireland continues for a further year until the Orange army gains full control.
July 26 – French landing party raids and burns Teignmouth in Devon, England. However, with the loss of James II's position in Ireland, any plans for a real invasion are soon shelved and Teignmouth is the last-ever French attack on England.
August 24 – In India, the fort and trading settlement of Sutanuti - which later becomes Calcutta - is founded on the Hooghly River by the English East India Company following signing of an Anglo-Moghul treaty.
September 25 – The only issue of Publick Occurrences is published in Boston, Massachusetts, before being suppressed by the colonial authorities.
October 6–12 October – Massachusetts Puritans led by Sir William Phips besiege the city of Quebec. The siege ends in failure.
October 8 – Ottomans recapture Belgrade during Great Turkish War.
November 17 – Barclays Is founded in London, England.
December – Earliest recorded sighting of the planet Uranus, by John Flamsteed, who mistakenly catalogues it as the star 34 Tauri.
December 29 – An earthquake hits Ancona in the Papal States of Italy.
Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic leads the first of the two Great Serbian Migrations into the Habsburg Empire, following Ottoman atrocities in Kosovo.
The Hearth Tax is abolished in Scotland, one year after its abolition in England and Wales.
French physicist Denis Papin, while in Leipzig and having observed the mechanical power of atmospheric pressure on his 'digester', builds a working model of a reciprocating steam engine for pumping water, the first of its kind, though not efficient.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiter's atmosphere.
Arcangelo Corelli publishes his Concerti Grossi.
The Barrage Vauban, a defensive work in the city of Strasbourg (in present-day France) was completed
Possible year of the disappearance of the western part of the island of Buise in St. Peter's Flood.
January 22 – Nicolas Lancret, French painter (d. 1743)
January 31 – Thomas Carter, Irish politician (d. 1763)
February 1 – Francesco Maria Veracini, Italian composer (d. 1768)
February 3 – Richard Rawlinson, English minister and antiquarian (d. 1755)
February 3 – Elizabeth Walker, English pharmacist (b. 1623)
March 18 – Christian Goldbach, Prussian mathematician (d. 1764)
April 22 – John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, English statesman (d. 1763)
September 12 – Peter Dens, Belgian Catholic theologian (d. 1775)
October 29 – Martin Folkes, English antiquarian (d. 1754)
November 24 – Charles Theodore Pachelbel, German composer (d. 1750)
November 29 – Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, father of Catherine II of Russia (d. 1747)
December 1 – Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor of England (d. 1764)
December 22 – Meidingu Pamheiba, King of Manipur (d. 1751)
January 3 – Hillel ben Naphtali Zevi, Lithuanian rabbi (b. 1615)
February 7 – Sir William Morice, 1st Baronet, English royalist statesman (b. c. 1628)
February 22 – Charles Le Brun, French artist (b. 1619)
April 18 – Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, Austrian-born general of the Holy Roman Empire (b. 1643)
April 25 – David Teniers the Younger, Flemish artist (b. 1610)
May 9 – Theodore Haak, German-born scholar (b. 1605)
May 21 – John Eliot, English Puritan missionary (b. 1604)
May 27 – Giovanni Legrenzi, Italian composer (b. 1626)
July 1 – George Walker, Irish soldier and Anglican priest (b. 1645)
July 21 – Gregorio Carafa, Calabrian-born 62nd Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1615)
September 2 – Philip William, Elector Palatine, German-born ruler (b. 1615)
October 3 – Robert Barclay, Scottish writer (b. c. 1648)
November 17 – Charles de Sainte-Maure, duc de Montausier, French soldier (b. 1610)
1690 (MDCXC) was a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1690th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 690th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1690, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.