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1689

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1689

1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1689th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 689th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1689, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

January–June

  • January 11 (January 22 O.S.) – Glorious Revolution in England: The Convention Parliament is convened to determine if King James II of England, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, vacated the throne when he fled to France at the end of 1688. The settlement of this is agreed on 8 February.
  • February 13 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are proclaimed co-rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland.
  • March 2 – Nine Years' War: As French forces leave, they set fire to Heidelberg Castle and the nearby town of Heidelberg.
  • March 22 (March 12 O.S.) - Start of the Williamite War in Ireland: The deposed James II of England lands with 6,000 French soldiers in Ireland, where there is a Catholic majority, hoping to use it as the base for a counter-coup. However, many Irish Catholics see him as an agent of Louis XIV of France and refuse to support him.
  • March 27 Japanese haiku master Bashō sets out on his last great voyage which will result in the prose and verse classic Oku no Hosomichi ("Narrow Road to the Interior").
  • April 11 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are crowned in London as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland. Ireland does not recognise them yet, while the Estates of Scotland declare King James VII of Scotland deposed.
  • April 18
  • Boston revolt: Unpopular Governor of the Dominion of New England Sir Edmund Andros and other officials are overthrown by a "mob" of Bostonians. Andros, an appointee of James II of England, is disliked for his support of the Church of England and revocation of various colonial charters.
  • Williamite War in Ireland: Siege of Derry: James II arrives at the gates of Derry and asks for its surrender, which is refused by the Protestant defenders.
  • May 11 (May 1 O.S.) - Williamite War in Ireland: Battle of Bantry Bay between the English Royal Navy under the Earl of Torrington and the French fleet under the Marquis de Châteaurenault. The French are able to protect their transports unloading supplies for James II and withdraw unpursued.
  • May 12 – Nine Years' War: With England and the Netherlands both now ruled by William III, they join the Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), thus escalating the conflict, which continues until 1697. This is also the effective beginning of King William's War, the first of four North American Wars until 1763 between English and French colonists, both sides allied to Native American tribes. The nature of the fighting is a series of raids on each other's settlements across the Canadian and New England borders.
  • May 24 – The Bill of Rights establishes constitutional monarchy in England but with Roman Catholics barred from the throne. Parliament also passes the Act of Toleration protecting Protestants but with Roman Catholics intentionally excluded. This effectively concludes the Glorious Revolution.
  • May 25 – The last hearth tax is collected in England and Wales.
  • May 31 – Leisler's Rebellion: Calvinist Jacob Leisler deposes lieutenant governor Francis Nicholson and assumes control of the Province of New York.
  • July–December

  • July 25 – Abolition of Council of Wales and the Marches.
  • July 27 – First Jacobite rising: Scottish Covenanter supporters of William and Mary (under Hugh Mackay) are defeated by Jacobite supporters of James II at the Battle of Killiecrankie near Pitlochry in Perthshire, but the latter's leader, John Graham, Viscount Dundee, is killed. Hand grenades are used in action.
  • July 28 – Relief of the Siege of Derry after 105 days: English sailors break through a floating boom across the River Foyle to end the Siege.
  • August 2 – Boston Revolt: Edmund Andros, former governor of the Dominion of New England, escapes from Boston to Connecticut but is recaptured.
  • August 5 – A force of 1,500 Iroquois attacks the village of Lachine, in New France.
  • August 12 – Death of Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi; 1611–1689), Pope since 1676. A man of integrity who has been described as the greatest Pope of the 17th century, he played a major part in founding both the League of Augsburg, against Louis XIV, and the Holy League, against the Ottoman Empire.
  • August 20 – A large Williamite force under Marshal Schomberg begins the Siege of Carrickfergus which surrenders on August 27.
  • August 21 – First Jacobite rising: Battle of Dunkeld: Covenanters defeat the Jacobites in Scotland.
  • August 27 – China and Russia sign the Treaty of Nerchinsk.
  • October 6 – Pope Alexander VIII succeeds Pope Innocent XI, to become the 241st pope.
  • November 22 – Peter the Great decrees the construction of the Great Siberian Road to China.
  • December 16 – The English Bill of Rights is officially declared in force.
  • Date unknown

  • Peter the Great plots to overthrow his half-sister Sophia as regent of Russia.
  • Supporters of William of Orange seize Liverpool Castle.
  • The English East India Company expands its influence with the establishment of administrative districts called presidencies in the Indian provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, the effective beginning of the company's long rule in India.
  • Valvasor's The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola is printed in Nuremberg.
  • Births

  • January 18 – Montesquieu, French writer (d. 1755)
  • February 3 – Blas de Lezo, admiral of the Spanish Empire
  • April 2 – Arthur Dobbs, Irish politician and governor of the Province of North Carolina (d. 1765)
  • April 14 – William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, second son of John Murray, 1st Duke of Atholl
  • May 24 – Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea, English lawyer (d. 1769)
  • May 26 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English writer (d. 1762)
  • June 26 – Edward Holyoke, American President of Harvard University (d. 1769)
  • July 9 – Alexis Piron, French writer (d. 1773)
  • August 19 – Samuel Richardson, English writer (d. 1761)
  • October 22 – King John V of Portugal (d. 1750)
  • December 23 – Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, French composer (d. 1755)
  • Deaths

  • January 6 – Bishop Seth Ward, English mathematician and astronomer (b. 1617)
  • March 18 – John Dixwell, English judge (b. 1607)
  • April 16 – Aphra Behn, English author (b. 1640)
  • April 18 – George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys, British Lord Chief Justice (b. 1648)
  • April 19 – Christina, Queen of Sweden (b. 1626)
  • May 14 – Sambhaji, High Protector of the Maratha Empire (b. 1657)
  • July 8 – Edward Wooster, English Connecticut pioneer (b. 1622)
  • August 12 – Pope Innocent XI (b. 1611)
  • August 21 – William Cleland, Scottish poet and soldier (b. c. 1661)
  • November 26 – Marquard Gude, German archaeologist (b. 1635)
  • December 6 – Pjetër Bogdani, Albanian priest and writer (b. c. 1630)
  • December 29 – Thomas Sydenham, English physician (b. 1624)
  • References

    1689 Wikipedia


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