|Covid-19|April 10 – Charles V, Duke of Lorraine is appointed commander of the Imperial army.
May 3 – Sultan Mehmed IV enters Belgrade.
June 6 – The Ashmolean Museum opens as the world's first university museum.
June 12 – The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England is discovered.
July 8 – The Qing dynasty Chinese admiral Shi Lang leads 300 ships with 20,000 troops out of Tongshan, Fujian and sails towards the Kingdom of Tungning, in modern-day Taiwan and Penghu, in order to quell the kingdom in the name of Qing.
July 14 – A 140,000-man Ottoman force arrives at Vienna and starts to besiege the city.
July 16 and July 17 – Battle of Penghu: Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang defeats the naval forces of Zheng Keshuang in a decisive victory.
September 5 – The Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang receives the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang, ushering in the collapse of the Kingdom of Tungning, which is then incorporated into the Qing Empire.
September 12 – Battle of Vienna: The Ottoman siege of the city is broken with the arrival of a force of 70,000 Poles, Austrians and Germans under Polish–Lithuanian king Jan III Sobieski, whose cavalry turns their flank (considered to be the turning point in the Ottoman Empire's fortunes).
October 3 – Shi Lang reaches Taiwan and occupies present day Kaohsiung.
October 6 – Germantown, Philadelphia is founded as the first permanent German settlement in North America (in 1983 U.S. President Ronald Reagan declares a 300th Year Celebration, and in 1987, it becomes an annual holiday, German-American Day).
November 1 – The English crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.
December – The River Thames freezes, allowing a frost fair to be held.
Wild boars are hunted to extinction in Britain.
January 13 – Christoph Graupner, German composer (d. 1760)
February 28 – René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist (d. 1757)
March 1 – Caroline of Ansbach, British queen and regent, wife of George II of Great Britain (d. 1737); her birthdate was associated with Saint David's Day, for example in plate 4 of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress
April 3 – Mark Catesby, English naturalist (d. 1749)
June 23 – Étienne Fourmont, French orientalist (d. 1745)
September 7 – Maria Anna of Austria, Archduchess of Austria and Queen consort of Portugal (d. 1754)
September 11 – Farrukhsiyar, Mughal Emperor (d. 1719)
September 25 – Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer (d. 1764)
October 17 – Aixin-Jueluo Yuntang, born Aixin-Jueluo Yintang, Qing prince (d. 1726)
October 25 – Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, British politician (d. 1757)
November 10 – King George II of Great Britain (d. 1760)
November 30 – Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller, Austrian field marshal (d. 1744)
December 19 – King Philip V of Spain (d. 1746)
December 27 – Conyers Middleton, English minister (d. 1750)
date unknown – Anna Maria Thelott, Swedish artist (d. 1710)
January 21 – Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, British politician (b. 1621)
February 18 – Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem, Dutch painter (b. 1620)
March 19 – Thomas Killigrew, English dramatist (b. 1612)
March 29 – Yaoya Oshichi, young Japanese girl burned at the stake for arson (b. 1667)
July 10 – François Eudes de Mézeray, French historian (b. 1610)
July 13 – Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, English statesman (b. 1631)
July 30 – Maria Theresa of Spain, first wife of Louis XIV of France (b. 1638)
August 18 – Charles Hart, English actor (b. 1625)
August 24 – John Owen, English non-conformist theologian (b. 1616)
September 6 – Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French minister of finance (b. 1619)
September 12 – King Afonso VI of Portugal (b. 1643)
October 25 – William Scroggs, lord chief justice of England (b. c. 1623)
John Oldham, English poet (smallpox) (b. 1653)
Algernon Sidney, English politician (b. 1623)
December 15 – Izaak Walton, English writer (b. 1593)
date unknown – Birgitta Durell, Swedish industrialist (b. 1616)
1683 (MDCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1683rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 683rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1683, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.