|Covid-19|March 11 – Work begins on construction of the Royal Hospital Chelsea for old soldiers in London, England.
April 7 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, exploring rivers in America, reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River.
April 9 – At the mouth of the Mississippi River, near modern Venice, Louisiana, Robert de La Salle buries an engraved plate and a cross, claiming the territory as La Louisiane for France.
May 6 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
May 7 – The reign of Peter the Great officially begins in Russia.
May 11 – Moscow Uprising of 1682: A mob takes over the Kremlin and lynches the leading boyars and military commanders.
July 19 – Iyasus succeeds his father Yohannes I as Emperor of Ethiopia.
August 12 – Vesuvius begins a period of volcanic activity lasting for 10 days.
August 25 – Following the Bideford witch trial, three women become the last known to be hanged for witchcraft in England, at Exeter.
September 14 – Bishop Gore School in Swansea, Wales, is founded.
September – A comet is observed, which later becomes known as Comet Halley, after Edmond Halley successfully predicts that it will return in 1758.
October 12 – Sultan Mehmed IV departs Istanbul for Adrianople.
October 19 – Kara Mustafa departs with the Ottoman army to Adrianople.
October 27 – The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded by William Penn.
Celia Fiennes noblewoman and traveller, begins her journeys across Britain, in a venture that would prove to be her life's work. Her aim was to chronicle the towns, cities and great houses of the country. Her travels continued until at least 1712, and would take her to every county in England, though the main body of her journal was not written until the year 1702.
The Richard Wall House, believed to be the longest continuously-inhabited residence in the USA, is built in Pennsylvania.
February 25 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist (d. 1771)
April 16 – John Hadley, English inventor (d. 1744)
May 17 – Bartholomew Roberts, a.k.a. Black Bart, Welsh pirate (d. 1722)
June 17 – King Charles XII of Sweden (d. 1718)
July 10 – Roger Cotes, English mathematician (d. 1716)
August 16 – Louis, duc de Bourgogne, heir to the throne of France (d. 1712)
October 29 – Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, French historian (d. 1761)
date unknown – Margareta Capsia, Finnish artist (d. 1759)
February 25 – Alessandro Stradella, Italian composer (b. 1639; murdered)
March 14 – Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, Dutch painter (b. c. 1628)
April 1 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, German politician and Archbishop of Strasbourg (b. 1625)
April 3 – Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (b. 1618)
May 7 – Tsar Feodor III of Russia (b. 1661)
July 12 – Jean Picard, French astronomer (b. 1620)
July 19 – Yohannes I, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. c. 1640)
September 8 – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish writer (b. 1606)
October 19 – Sir Thomas Browne, English author, physician and philosopher (b. 1605)
November 4 – Dirck Rembrantsz van Nierop, Dutch astronomer and cartographer (b. 1610)
November 19 – Prince Rupert of the Rhine, German soldier, Royalist commander in the English Civil War (b. 1619)
November 23 – Claude Lorrain, Lorraine-born landscape painter (b. c. 1600)
December 18 – Guðríður Símonardóttir, Icelandic woman known as a victim of the Turkish abductions (b. 1598)
Phillip Calvert, Colonial governor of Maryland (born c. 1626)
Mariam Dadiani, Queen Dowager of Kartli (b. 1599/1609)
The Great 5th Dalai Lama of Tibet (b. 1617)
1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Julian calendar, the 1682nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 682nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1682, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.